Medical Topic Research Blog by Aleah Jones
Three Sources of Information
2. Website: Annual Review of Medicine
3. Website: ProQuest
Definitions and Word Analyses of Five Medical Terms
path/o (CF)= disease
-logy (S)= study of
Definition: The study of disease
2. Word Analysis of Degenerative
de- (P)= down, away from
gen (R)= formation, produce
-ive (S)= nature of, quality of
Definition: Disorder or condition leading to progressive loss of function
3. Word Analysis of Autoimmune
auto- (P)= self
immun/o (CF)= safe, immunity
Definition: disease characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
4. Word Analysis of Sclerotic
scler/o (CF)= hardening, sclera
-tic (S)= pertaining to
Definition: pertaining to or having sclerosis
5. Word Analysis of Demyelination
de- (P)= down, away from
myel/o (CF)= spinal cord
-ion (S)= process
Definition: Loss of the myelin covering of some nerve fibers resulting in their impaired function
The exact cause of MS remains unknown. However, research in the last decade has shed new light on important factors contributing to the development of MS. Genetics play a major role. MS is not directly inherited; however, there is an increased genetic susceptibility in those with a family history of the disease. Other contributing factors include environment (increased prevalence as one moves away from the equator), exposure to pathogens, and vitamin D exposure (Burke, Hooper, Barlow & Hatter, 2013).
Multiple sclerosis can cause significant symptoms including difficulties with cognition, mood, vision, speech and swallowing, upper and lower limb function, bladder and bowel function, neuropathic pain, sexual function, and fatigue. Symptoms of MS vary from person to person (Burke, Hooper, Barlow & Hatter, 2013). The outcome in patients with relapsing-remitting MS is variable; untreated, approximately 50% of all MS patients require the use of a walking aid within ten years after clinical onset (Hafler, 2004). Axonal damage occurs in addition to demyelination and may be the cause of later permanent disability (Murray, Saunders & Holland, 2012).
The use of MRI has had a major impact on allowing the early and more precise diagnosis of the disease. Therapies for MS have emerged over the last two decades with the demonstration of three classes of immunomodulating therapies that impact the course of early MS: immunosuppressive drugs such as mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (Hafler, 2004). Irreversible damage to the central nervous system in MS can start during the early stages of the disease. Consequently, early treatment is now recommended to achieve the optimal therapeutic effect. Generally, the newer treatments while having greater efficacy, have additional safety concerns which bring new issues to the patient (Burke, Hooper, Barlow & Hatter, 2013).
Burke, T., Hooper, K., Barlow, S., & Hatter, L. (2013). Multiple sclerosis. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 21(5), 30-33. Retrieved on March 18, 2016, from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.unwsp.edu/docview/1459391898?pg-origsite=summon.
Hafler, D.A. (2004). Multiple sclerosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 113(6), 788-794. http://doi.org/10.1172/JCI200421357 retrieved on March 18, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC362131/?tool=pmcentrez.
Murray, T.J., Saunders, C., & Holland, N. (2012). Multiple sclerosis: A guide for the newly diagnosed (4th ed.). New York: Demos Health. Retrieved on March 18, 2016, from http://ezproxy.unwsp.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=keh&AN=6533409&site=ehost-live&scope=site.