Deoxyribonucleic Acid

What is DNA? Where is it? What is it made of? What is its structure?

  1. DNA also know as deoxyribonucleic acid is a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
  2. Researchers refer to DNA found in the cell's nucleus as nuclear DNA. An organism's complete set of nuclear DNA is called its genome. Besides the DNA located in the nucleus, humans and other complex organisms also have a small amount of DNA in cell structures known as mitochondria.
  3. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen-containing nucleobase—either guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), or cytosine (C)—as well as a monosaccharide sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group.
  4. The structure of DNA. DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone.
What is DNA?

What is RNA?

A polymeric constituent if all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose.

types of RNA

  1. mRNA or messenger RNA
  2. rRNA or Ribosomal RNA
  3. tRNA or Transfer RNA