Smoking as a risk factor in women
a systematic review
The number of women who are smoking is increasing. There are 1.1 billion people who are smoking, and among them, one fifth is women. (WHO, 1997) Smoking can be regarded as a form of recreational drug use. It is known to all that smoking is bad for the lung and also the whole body, because the substance of cigarettes gas come the blood stream by lung. For long term speakers, it is easier for them to get lung cancer, heart attacks, strokes and so on. And for long term smoking women, low birth weight of infants is a result. Smoking may reduce people’s stress, so that’s why there are a lot of people addicted to smoking.
In this article, the scientists estimate the effect of smoking on coronary heart disease in women compared with men after accounting for sex differences in other major risk factors. The scientists reviewed 8005 abstracts and 26articles to analyzed data. 3912809 individuals and 67075 coronary heart disease events are included. The scientists selected cohort studies that were satisfied by sex ith measures if relative risk, and associated variability, for coronary heart disease and current smoking compared with not smoking. The scientists pooled data from 53 studies and estimated relative risk ratios between men and women. However, there is no significant evidence that there should be a sex difference in the relative risks between participants who had never smoked and those who had smoked a lot previously. (Huxley, R. R., & Woodward, M. 2011) Of the main causes of coronary heart disease, cigarette smoking is one, and will remain so as populations that have so far been relatively unscathed by the smoking epidemic begin to smoke to a degree previously noted only in high-income countries. This expectation is especially true for young women in whom the popularity of smoking, particularly in some low income and middle-income countries, might be on the rise. (Gilmore A, et al., 2004 & USCDCP, 2011) Thus, after taking classic cardiovascular risk factors into consideration, women had a 25% higher risk for coronary heart disease obviously conferred by cigarette smoking compared with men. Clinically, physicians and health professionals should be encouraged to make contributions to promote smoking cessation in all individuals. (Huxley, R. R., & Woodward, M. 2011) The worldwide tobacco control programs should make efforts to take care of women, especially of where, the number of smoking young women is increasing rapidly.