Cultural and Intellectual Trends

Gaven Busby and Charles West

Mass Culture: Radio and Movies

  • First broadcasting facilities were made in 1921 and 1922.
  • In 1926 there were 2.2 millions radios in Great Britain.
  • By the end of the 1930s there were 9 million.
  • Full length feature films weren't out until shortly before World War I.
  • By 1939 about 40% of adults in industrialized countries went to one movie a week.
  • Hitler used the radio to get his speeches out to people that couldn't attend the speech, or couldn't afford a TV.
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Mass Leisure

  • After World War I, people had different work schedules giving them leisure time to do whatever they wanted.
  • By 1920, eight hour work schedules had become the norm for many workers in northern and western Europe.
  • A huge part of the leisure time was sporting events and traveling.
  • Mass leisure gave new ways for the totalitarian states to control the people.
  • During time of from work, many people began going to concerts, operas, films, guided tours, and sporting events.
  • Since so many people were participating in such events, the prices dropped significantly making it very affordable.
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Artistic and Literary Trends

  • The war left many people in despair with second thoughts about western values.
  • After 1918 artistic trends mainly reflected developments made before the war.
  • Abstract art became very popular during this time.
  • "The world does not make sense so why should art".
  • Gave rise to both the Dada movement and surrealism.
  • The dadaist were artists who were obsessed with the idea that life has no purpose.
  • The surrealist sought a reality beyond the material world and found it in the world of the unconscious.
  • Salvador Dali was the high priest of surrealism.
Dutch students in world war 2