A Focus on Modeling

Effective Reading and Writing Instruction

Megan Kelzer, Section C, 2/11/15

What is it...

"Modeling is a necessary stage of effective instruction that helps students to conceptualize and apply new skills and strategies." Modeling is the classroom for every subject is very important. In the article it specifically explained how to model in reading and writing lessons. Using the think-aloud strategy to model in the classroom is a very good idea. The teachers can model how to complete the lesson but also explain step by step how they would complete it.

What should teachers model?

"A) why the strategy is used (conditional knowledge) by providing specific reasons for the strategy selection. B) how the strategy is used (procedural knowledge) by providing explicit instruction absent of ambiguity. C) what strategies to select I specific situations (declarative knowledge) by selecting the appropriate strategy to match the situation and/or not being to rigid with how to use the strategy."

Modeling During Reading Instruction

Be Specific: It is important to explicitly state during instruction why the students would use a strategy and when during the reading process to do so.

Be Explicit: It is important to model all of the steps of the strategy. Modeling of self-regulatory feedback is also very important.

Be Flexible: Teachers should explicitly draw students' attention to the characteristics of the reading to make a strategy appropriate.

Modeling During Writing Instruction

Be Specific: Model and reinforce the strategy through out the lesson.

Be Explicit: Model step by step the strategy. Explicitly model how expert writers use positive self-statements to encourage fluid movement of writing from one step to the next.

Be Flexible: Model stumbling blocks that students may run into.

Extra Information

"Specificity, explicitness, and flexibility should be used with any evidence-based practice."

Students may not benefit from the strategies if an adequate amount of time is not spent on modeling.

Other Great Resources

This is a video on the teaching channel of a teacher explaining how she models in her classroom.


Here is a video of students explain what they believe modeling is.


Discussion Questions

1) What experiences have you had in modeling in a lesson you have taught?

2) Have you had a teacher model in a way that inspires you? If so tell me?

3) Modeling is a great strategy to use in every subject, what other strategies should be used in each subject and why?


Regan, K., & Berkeley, S. (2011).Effective reading and writing instruction: A focus on modeling. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(5), 276-282. doi: 10.1177/1053451211430117