Sexually Transmitted Diseases
By: Chaitanya Srinivasan
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Treatment: Antiretroviral Therapy can control the virus to allow the patient to live longer and healthier. It prevents the HIV virus from multiplying inside the body, giving the immune system a chance to fight off infections and cancer.
Prevention: Using condoms, reducing the number of sexual partners, and consulting with doctor about taking pre-exposure prophylaxis can help prevent contraction of the HIV virus.
Complications: The virus multiplies rapidly inside the body, making it difficult for the body to fight the infection.
Treatment: Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, and Famciclovir have active ingredients that stop the HSV virus from replicating. These medications have been listed in chronological order, so Famciclovir does not need to be taken as often as Acyclovir since it is more well absorbed into the body.
Prevention: Use a condom during sexual intercourse, and avoid having intercourse with a partner who already has herpes.
Complications: Bladder problems, newborn infections, other STD contractions, Meningitis, and anal inflammation.
Treatment: Doctors prescribe oral antibiotics like azithromycin and doxycycline. Women with severe chlamydia may be hospitalized and treated with intravenous antibiotics.
Prevention: Refrain from having sex with more than one partner. Condoms also reduce the risk of contracting a STI.
Complications: Chlamydia can lead to reactive arthritis. Inflammation of the testicles could affect fertility.
Men - Urgency or frequency of urination, pus-like discharge from the penis, swelling or pain in the testicles, persistent sore throat.
Women - Discharge from the vagina, sharp pain in the lower abdomen, the need to urinate more frequently, fever.
Treatment: There are many strains of drug-resistant gonorrhea, which are extremely difficult to treat. Cefiximine can be taken in oral doses.
Prevention: Refrain from having multiple sex partners and any partners that show signs and symptoms of gonorrhea.
Complications: Gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ongoing pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Gonorrhea spreads to the bloodstream, so the patient may experience arthritis, heart valve damage, or inflammation of the lining of the brain or spinal cord.
Treatment: Benzathine penicillin G will kill the bacterium and prevent further damage; however, it will not repair the damage that has already been done.
Prevention: Abstain or be monogamous. Use a latex condom and avoid recreational drugs, which can cloud your judgment and, as indicated by studies, possibly lead to unsafe sexual practices.
Complications: Stroke, Meningitis, Deafness, Visual problems, and Dementia.
Treatment: Metronidazole or tinidazole can be prescribed as antibiotic medication that cures trichomoniasis in a single dose. It is okay for pregnant women to take this medication.
Prevention: Practice safe sex.
Complications: 1 in 5 people who are treated for trichomoniasis get infected again within 3 months of treatment.
Pubic Lice (Crabs)
Treatment: A lice killing lotion that contains 1% permethrin can kill the pubic lice.
Prevention: Avoid any kind of contact with an infested person. Do not share clothing, bedding, or towels with an infested person. Do not use fumigant sprays or fogs as treatment, as they can be toxic
Complications: Discolored skin, secondary infections, eye irritation.
Treatment: Interferon alfa-2b, antiviral medication, and liver transplant either reduce the risk of liver disease, or prevent the disease from being passed on to others.
Prevention: Hepatitis B vaccine, know the HBV status of your sexual partner, stop using illicit drugs, and be cautious about tattoos or piercings.
Complications: Cirrhosis, Liver cancer, Liver failure, kidney disease, and inflammation of blood vessels.
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus
Treatment: Directed to the macroscopic or pathologic precancerous lesions caused by HPV.
Prevention: Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines protect against most cases of cervical cancer, condoms, monogamous relationship
Complications: Oral and upper respiratory lesions, cancer.
Treatment: Effective antibiotic treatment is available on prescription from a doctor, specialist treatment
Prevention: Safe sex, monogamous relationship
Complications: Contraction of other STDs