Down Syndrome

By: Nick Davis

Down Syndrome in Brief

Normally, parents pass down 23 individual chromosomes that pair together to create another human of 46 chromosomes. Down Syndrome occurs when an individual receives an extra partial or full chromosome. Specifically, and extra copy of the 21st chromosome. The chromosome that causes the disorder is the 21st. The extra chromosome parts alter the development process for the eventual offspring. Down Syndrome, also referred to as "Trisomy 21", can limit a person's development and potential.

Causes Of Disorder

Down Syndrome is initially caused by abnormal cell division. Thus, making the disorder caused by a broader term called nondisjunction. The extra genetic material caused by the extra chromosome complicate development. The type of Down Syndrome is determined by the number of cells have the wrong chromosome. Doctors believe that the nondisjunction occurs in the female, and not the male. The cause of the nondisjunction remains unknown.

Prenatal Tests

The disorder is inherited through the parents of the offspring. More specifically, the disorder is passed through the mother in child development. The mother does not have the disorder nor is a "carrier for it". Down Syndrome is an unpreventable, incurable disorder. During pregnancy, tests can be done to examine if any, birth defects. Down Syndrome would be considered one of the most common birth defects. In other, lower income countries, these tests may not be available. Most pregnant mothers always take either A screening or diagnostic test to check on birth defects in their offspring.


Down Syndrome causes several different symptoms in people affected by the disorder. Symptoms include short stature, low muscle tone, slanted eyes, irregular crooked teeth, and not proportional facial parts. Intellectual disabilities are often present in children and adults with Down Syndrome. Depression and ADHD is also associated with Down Syndrome.

Population Affected

Anyone can can a candidate for this disorder. Although more commonly passed through genetics, anyone can have this disorder. Approximately 400,000 people in the United States have been diagnosed with Down Syndrome. Less than 1% of children have Down Syndrome each year.

Treatment & Long Term Outlook

Down Syndrome is an incurable disorder that affects a large population of all animals across the Earth. The long term outlook for most children/adults is unfortunately rather low. Unfortunately, this disorder causes many people to not reach their full potential.

Assistance (medical, physical)

Medical assistance may be necessary depending on the person. It is a case by case scenario for each person. Heavy assistance will be needed throughout the life of individuals with Down Syndrome. The assistance needed will be determined on the extent of the disorder. Someone may need a constant caregiver for their full life and another may be able to go to school and operate fairly well under the circumstances. Regardless, medical and Physical attention must be addressed.


The individual with Down Syndrome is still able to produce offspring. A human with the disorder will not always pass it down to their offspring. IN fact, two generations of children with Down Syndrome is rare.


The status of the disorder is similar to the state of year's past. There is still no cure but research done is being done to fully understand the disorder and put no doubt in the incurable state.