Shigella

Disease: Shigellosis-Bacillary Dysentery

Shape: Bacillus, Gram Negative

How it infects the host

Shigellosis is spread by means of fecal- oral-transmission. Other modes of transmission include ingestion of contaminated food or water, contact with contaminated inanimated object, and sex.

The B subunit of holotoxin binds to the GB3 receptor on the cell surface of brush border cells of the intestines, the receptor-holotoxin complex is endocytosed, the complex moves to Golgi Apparatus and then to endoplasmic reticulum.


Life Cycle of Shigella

Symptoms

- acute abdominal pain
- acute fever
- blood, mucus, pus in stool
- crampy rectal stool
- nausea/vomiting
- watery diarrhea


Shigella is found in stool

History

It became an official genus in the 1950s. Each species has their own “niche”, which represents what the species main function or area is. S. dysenteriae serotype 1 causes deadly epidemics mainly in developing countries, S boydii is restricted to the Indian subcontinent, and S. flexneri and S. sonnei are prevalent in developing and developed countries, respectively. S. flexneri is also responsible for the worldwide endemic form of bacillary dysentery. ~ MicrobeWiki


Treatment

- Avoid dehydration
- Antibiotics shorten length of illness
  • sulfamethoxazole
  • ampicillin
- Might need fluids through veins


Expected Outcome

- Often mild and goes away on its own
- Most patients have an excellent outlook