Components of a network


What is a router?

A router is specialized computer connected to more than one network running software that allows the router to move data from one network to another.


In order to set up a home wireless network, you will need the components listed below. All of the components are used in both wired and wireless networks, except Ethernet cable which is only used in wired networks.


NIC - Network Interface Card - This is both an electrical interface to the router/modem, and a logical board that communicates to the rest of the pc, usually registered jack forty five or registered jack eleven standard. The cable to provide a carrier for the signals is either shielded or unshielded

Hub - this splits the connection between multiple PC’s, which may regenerate the signal.

Switch - used to split multiple PCs into different groupings based on logical needs or security needs.

Router - used to send data between physical networks.

A ring network

A ring network goes around clockwise. This is one of the slowest networks as only one client can send something at a time. If one part of the network breaks up then the whole thing will not work.

1. Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit.
2. Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load. Can create much larger network using Token Ring.
1. One malfunctioning workstation or bad port in the MAU can create problems for the entire network
2. Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network

A bus network

A bus network is a bit like bus stop and only one client can send or receive something. This is not the quickest network and if one part breaks down the whole thing doesn't work.

Pros –
1. Easy to implement and extend
2.Requires less cable length than a star topology

Cons –
1. Limited cable length and number of stations.
2. If there is a problem with the cable, the entire network goes down. Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run.


A star network

A star network is the best network out of the 3 as it is the most efficient and quickest. If a connect does not work to a client the network will still be up for other clients, but if the hub fails then the other clients fail as well.

1. Performance: Data packets do not travel through any unnecessary nodes. Communication between any two devices on the network involves at most three devices and two links. The isolation of traffic between nodes means that heavy utilization from one device is invisible to other devices on the network, provided that the central hub retains adequate capacity.
2. Isolation: Each device is isolated on its own link. This makes it easy to isolate individual devices from the network by disconnecting them from the hub. Any non-centralized failure will have very little effect on the network.

Cons –
The primary disadvantage of a star topology is the high dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub. While the failure of an individual link only results in the isolation of a single node, the failure of the central hub renders the network inoperable, immediately isolating all nodes.

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