Chapter 7 - Training &Development

Instructor: Stephanie Hall, MBA/PA

McDonald's Training Program

McDonalds Training Video

Training

Official and unofficial accomplishments to increase capabilities pertinent to an employee’s or workgroup’s present occupation.

Development

Concentrates on developing skills that an employee or workgroup's is projected to need in the future.

American Society for Training and Development

The World's largest professional association for training and development.

Five Steps to Effective Training

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Needs Assessment

The method of recognizing any cracks between what occurs and what is required in the future in relations of employee performance, competencies, and behaviors.

Three levels of Needs Assessment

1. Organizational Analysis
2. Task Analysis
3. Person Analysis

Organizational Needs Analysis

Distinguishes where in the organization development or advancement opportunities exist.

Six levels of Organizational Needs

1. Strategic Plans
2. Performance Appraisals
3. Customer Surveys
4. Employee Surveys
5. Restructuring Plan
6. Efficiency Measures

Task Needs Analysis

Emphases on discovering which occupations, skills, talents, behaviors, etc…the training force should focus on.

Four levels of Task Needs Analysis

1. Job or Competency Analysis
2. Observation
3. Performance Appraisals
4. Quality Control Analysis

Person Needs Analysis

Assesses how specific employees are doing in the training area and defines who needs what type of training.

Five levels of Person Needs Analysis

1. Performance Appraisals
2. Customer Surveys
3. Individual Assessments
4. Performance Issues
5. Skill Inventories

Learning Objectives

Identify desired learning results.

Learning objectives guide the development of the training content and delivery methods.

3 types of learning objectives:

1. Cognitive - Increase a type of knowledge
2. Affective - changing of attitudes, relationships and appreciation
3. Psychomotor - building of a physical skill set

Designing the Training Program

1. Classroom training
2. On-the-Job
3. Virtual training
4. Experimental training
5. Games
6. Lifelong learning
7. Learning styles

Lifelong Learning

An official commitment to guaranteeing that employees have and improve the skills they need to be effective in their jobs today and in the future.

Aptitude-treatment interactions

The idea that some training strategies are more or less effective depending on a learners specific skills, personality traits, and other characteristics.

Learning Styles

How people differ in how we process data when problem solving or learning.

Sensory modality

A system that interacts with the environment through one of the basic senses.

Evaluate the Training

1. Participant reactions
2. Learning assessments
3. Training transfer back to the job

Training Evaluation

Thoroughly gathering the data required to make effective decisions about implementing, improving, valuing, and continuing an instructional activity or set of activities.

Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model - Four levels of training and learning evaluations.

1. Reaction
2. Learning
3. Behavior
4. Results

Review Table 7-2 - bottom of page 226

Return on Investments - ROI

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Informal Learning

Learning through a co-worker or experience.

Training transfer

Effectively using what is learned in training back on the job.

Closed skills

Skills done similar or exactly like they are taught in training.

Open skills

A set of values that can be applied in many different ways.

Self Management Strategies

Efforts to control one’s motivation, emotions, and decision making to develop the application of learned competencies on the job.

Reinforcers

Anything that makes a behavior more likely to occur again.


1. Positive reinforcement

2. Negative reinforcement

3. Punishment

4. Extinction

Three types of training programs:

1. Ethics Training - helps employees and managers understand their own ethical values and practice confronting ethical dilemmas.

2. Global Leadership Training - is critical and essential to the organizations multinational success. It helps develop understanding of cultural differences, personal cultural preferences, knowing the cultures of other countries, understanding implications of cultural differences within the workplace and effectively managing a multicultural/multinational workplace.
A. Culture-specific cross-cultural training - helps all identify the most effective way to work with people from other cultures.
B. General cross-cultural training - assist people with the uncertainty of working with a globally diverse individuals.

3. Diversity Training - promotes equality, inclusiveness and fairness. Diversity increases trust, communication and collaboration amongst employees to enable them to work effectively.

Orientation

Training activities to assist new hires fit in as organizational members

Socialization

A long-term process of planned and unplanned, formal and informal activities and experiences through which an individual obtains the attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge required to successfully contribute as an organizational member.


Socialization assists new employees understanding of the organizations values, traditions and process, so they may fit within the organization and create work relationships.

Phases of Socialization

1. Anticipatory socialization - the interaction employees receive with management regarding their expectations of the occupation.

2. Encounter - employees begin to learn about the culture, norms and how to complete the task of the position. Relationships are enhanced when management assist new hires in the understanding of their roles and how to deal with any issues that may create stress.

3. Settling In - When the new employee begins to feel comfortable within position, relations and the organizations evaluation process.

Socialization Options

1. One time or staggered approach - this approach is to stagger the socialization approach risk of information overload.

2. Collective socialization - newcomers are socialized individually as in a apprenticeship.

3. Formal socialization - structured socialization utilizing activities and materials specifically designed outside the work environment.

4. Informal socialization - unstructured, on the job socialization by co-workers.

5. Sequential socialization - The point to which precise sequence of socialization steps is charted.

6. Random socialization - uncertain or changing socialization steps.

7. Fixed socialization - when new employees are informed of the probationary status ending.

8. Variable socialization - when employees have no timeline of their status level change and it may be different than other employees.

9. Tournament socialization - each socialization stage is an elimination round - when a new employee does not pass the test and is released from their job assignment.

10. Contest socialization - each socialization stage is a contest and builds a performance record.

11. Serial socialization - available and understanding organizational members serve as role models and mentors.

12. Disjunctive socialization - new employees are left without help to foster their own analyses of the organization and conditions they detect.

13. Investiture socialization - the building of new employees confidence and reflects senior employees valuing of new employees knowledge and personal characteristics.

14. Divestiture socialization - the denial and the band of certain personal characteristics.

What pieces of socialization to include:

1. Culture - organizations rituals, behavior patterns, values, norms, languages and traditions.

2. Politics - information about formal or informal power structures and work relationships.

3. Organizational goals and policies - understanding of rules and principles that maintain the culture of the organization.

Whom to include:

1. Employees families

2. Managers

3. Co-Workers

Technology - How to use

Train employees on the organizations intranet.

Effective Socialization

Involves new employees, inspires them to ask questions as well as explains their roles.

Learning agility

The ability to learn from experiences and to apply the knowledge to new and different situations.

Motivation to transfer

Transferring any information received from training back into the work environment.
Share the knowledge!!!

Self regulation

Allowing an employee to guide/direct their activity goals over a period of time with the inclusion of thought, affect, behavior and attention.

E-learning