Text Icelandic - Engish
Sálfræði skiptist í ótalmargar, en mistengdar, undirgreinar. Þær eiga aðallega tvennt sameiginlegt: Viðfangsefni þeirra er hugarstarf og/eða hegðun, sem þær reyna að nálgast með vísindalegum rannsóknaraðferðum.
Það er ómögulegt að telja upp allar gerðir af sálfræði en hér að neðan er reynt að gera stuttlega grein fyrir þeim helstu.
Persónuleikasálfræði (e. personality psychology) kannar persónuleika fólks, hvað ræður honum og hvernig hann er samsettur. Með persónuleika er yfirleitt átt við tilhneigingu til hegðunar sem greinir á milli fólks, svo sem lífsgildi þess, áhugamál, heimsmynd, menningarlegan bakgrunn, sjálfsmynd, kímnigáfu og hugsunarhátt (Cohen og Swerdlik, 2005). Þessar upplýsingar eru stundum notaðar til að spá fyrir um hegðun fólks í námi og starfi
Þroskasálfræði (e. developmental psychology) fjallar um þær líffræðilegu, hugrænu og félagslegu breytingar sem verða á fólki á lífsleiðinni, allt frá því að það fæðist og þar til það deyr. Meðal verkefna þroskasálfræðinga er að kanna hvernig máltaka barna fer fram, hvernig vitsmunaþroski og hreyfigeta breytist og hvernig sjálfsmynd þróast í gegnum árin. Eitt helsta álitamálið innan þroskasálfræði var lengi vel hvort erfðir eða umhverfi móti helst manneskjuna, hugsun hennar og hegðun. Í dag eru hins vegar flestir sammála um að samspil þessara tveggja þátta ráði úrslitum.
Psychology can be classified in many categories. They all have two things in common. The subject is mind and behaviour, that they try to explain with scientific researches. It is impossible to count all the types of psychology there is but here are some of the main types.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual different processes and what makes us into a person. Personality tells us how people behave, their interests, how they see the world, their background, humor and what they think. These information’s are sometimes used to predict peoples bahavior in education and work.
Developmental psychology is about the biological and social changes on people on their lifetime, from when they are born and until they die. Developmental psychologists exam how children learn to speak, how they grow and how their movements and self-esteem develop through the years. For many years people wondered if genetics or environment have more affect on people. Now most people can agree that both these factors have affect on people.
Text English - Icelandic
Hvernig verða morðingjar til?
Fyrir nokkrum árum, þegar ég var að rannsaka árásagjarnahegðun heimsótti ég nokkur fangelsi til að taka viðtöl við menn sem höfðu verið dæmdir sekir fyrir að fremja morð eða aðra alvarlega glæpi. Þegar ég settist niður og talaði við fangana byrjaði ég alltaf á því að spyrja: ,,Hvernig varðstu ofbeldisfull manneskja?” Allir svöruðu að þeir hefðu orðið fyrir hræðilegu áfalli í æsku.
Sem rannsakandi veit ég að að það getur verið vafasamt að nota orð eins og “allir,” “allt,” og alltaf.” Auðvitað verða ekki allir ofbeldisfullir af sömu ástæðu. Samt sem áður, þegar þú skoðar líf ofbeldisfullra einstaklinga er mjög líklegt að þú finnir myrk augnablik af skelfingu og þjáningu. Tökum sem dæmi nýlegt mál sem komst á forsýður. Á HBO var mikið talað um heimidaþáttinn The Jinx, þar fundum við út að aðalperónan, erfingi í ríkri fjölskyldu og grunaður morðingi um þrjú morð, varð vitni að sjálfsvígi móður sinnar þegar hann var sjö ára. Það er mjög erfitt að horfa á hann lýsa því hvernig pabbi hans sagði honum að bjóða mömmu sinni góða nótt áður en hún dó og hvernig stuttu síðar þegar hann reyndi að bjarga henni frá því að vera jörðuð.
Ekki öll áföll skapa morðingja, en flestir morðingjar eru skapaðir vegna áfalla. EF við hugsum um börn sem berjast við fátækt, misnotkun eða fordóma og ganga til liðs við hópa til að flýja ástandið. Greg Boyle, stofnandi Homeboy Industries vinnur mikið með gengis meðlum Los Angeles, hefur sagt: “Ekkert barn sækist eftir að ganga til liðs við hópa þau eru alltaf að flýja eitthvað.” Svo spurningin er, “hvað eru þau að flýja?”
The Making of a Murderer
Years ago, when I was in the process of creating a violence assessment scale, I visited a series of high-security prisons to interview men found guilty of murder and other violent crimes. As I sat down with each inmate, the first question I always asked was, “How did you come to be a violent person?” Without fail, every single person I spoke to was quick to respond with a horrific tale of trauma in his childhood.
As a researcher, I know the dangers of using words like “every,” “all,” or “always.” Of course, not every instance of violence sparks from the same source. Yet, if you look into the life of any violent individual, you are likely to see a past darkened by extreme moments of terror and suffering. Take a recent case that’s made headlines. Two episodes into HBO’s much talked about documentary series The Jinx, and we find out the main character, the heir to a rich and powerful family and suspected killer of at least three, was witness to his mother’s suicide at the age of 7. It’s deeply disturbing to watch him coldly describe how his dad told him to wave “goodnight” to his mom before she died by suicide and how, a short time later, he tried to save her from being buried at her funeral.
Not every trauma creates a killer, but most killers are created from trauma. Consider the thousands of stories that don’t make it onto our TV screens. Think of the kids who struggle with poverty, abuse, or prejudice and join gangs to escape. As Father Greg Boyle, founder of Homeboy Industries who works closely with Los Angeles gang members, has said, “No kid is ever seeking anything when they join a gang. Kids are always fleeing something.” So, the question becomes, “what are they fleeing?”
I found a lot of psychologists on hi.is and sent them an email. Katrín gave me the best answers and that is why I chose her.
1. Pros and cons with the job?
3. Personality qualities that is good to have on the job?
4. What makes the job most fun?
5. Why did you start teaching?
6. Have you been working on any clinical researches?
Hello, my name is Katrín Sverrisdóttir. I did my education in Berlin so I don’t know how the education is here in Iceland. There are a lot of pros and cons with this job. The pros are that there are a lot of varieties in it. I get in touch with a lot of different people and I get to know different cultures. The cons are that it is hard to reduce stress when I have a lot to do. If you get sick or have a sick child there is no one that can work for you and take your interviews for you. I am pretty committed to my work place and it is hard to work from home.
I would say that the personalities that is good to have in this job is not to be a stressed type and it is good to be socially active and it id good to be able to work with different types of people. You have to be patient and have humor for your self.
What I like most about the job is to conduct individual therapy.
I am not teaching at the moment but I started teaching for an accident.
I work at LSH for eight years and did some researches and collected files.
Graham Hill: Less stuff, more happiness
This video tells us that we don’t need all the stuff that we have. We often buy stuff that we think that we need and we think that it will make us happier but usually it doesn´t. We need to try to figure out what stuff will make us happier and what stuff won’t. Even though we want the bigger apartment it doesn’t mean we need it. We will not only save money if we buy the smaller apartment but we will also mean that there will be less CO2. Sometimes less is more.
I chose this video because it had a title that made me want to watch it. I do not regret watching it because it was a good video that I think can help me in the future.
JD Schramm: Break the silence for suicide attempt survivors
This video is about a man who tried to commit suicide but failed and is now talking about it for the first time. He says that 19/20 people who try to commit suicide fail but they can’t get the help they need because suicide is something that people don’t want to talk about but they have to so that people that need help can get it.
I chose this video because I was exited to see what it was about and I also think that suicide is something that people should talk more about and especially people that have tried committing suicide but failed.
Joachim de Posada: Don't eat the marshmallow!
This video is about an experiment that was conducted on kids from four to six years old. This experiment shows us that the kids that didn’t eat the marshmallow were more successful in life than those who did. In the end of the video we saw when this experiment was conducted on Spanish kids and it was very fun to watch.
I chose this video because I have seen the video of the kids when they are trying to resist eating the marshmallows and I wanted to know why the experience was done and what it would show.