# Force and Motion 2nd Grade

## The Standard

Forces are needed to change the movement (speed up, slow down, change direction or stop) of an object. Some forces may act when an object is in contact with another object (e.g., pushing or pulling). Other forces may act when objects are not in contact with each other (e.g., magnetic or gravitational). Earthâ€™s gravity pulls any object toward it, without touching the object. Static electricity also can pull or push objects without touching the object. Magnets can pull some objects to them (attraction) or push objects away from them (repulsion). Gravity, static electricity and magnets must be explored through experimentation, testing and investigation at this grade level. For a particular object, larger forces can cause larger changes in motion. A strong kick to a rock is able to cause more change in motion than a weak kick to the same rock. Real-world experiences and investigations must be used for this concept. Note 1: Introducing fields, protons, electrons or mathematical manipulations of positive and negative to explain observed phenomena are not appropriate at this grade level. Note 2: There often is confusion between the concepts of force and energy. Force can be thought of as a push or pull between two objects and energy as the property of an object that can cause change. A force acting on an object can sometimes result in a change in energy. The differences between force and energy will be developed over time and is not appropriate at this grade level. Note 3: Charges and poles are often confused. It is important to emphasize they are different

## Science Online

Science Online is a great resource that would allow you to differentiate this topic.