Journal Questions...

Mikayla Jackson

Sustainable Living

  1. Sustainable living is a lifestyle that attempts to reduce an individual's use of Earth's natural resources and personal resources. People that use this method reduce their carbon footprint by altering methods of transportation, energy consumption, and diet. I personally believe I could use sustainable living.

Fossil Fuels vs. Renewable Energy

2. Fossil fuels are the remains of living organisms. They are coal and gas. Renewable Energy is energy from a source that is not depleted when used.

You know the debate between Fossil fuels and Renewable Energy, but which one is better? All of you should know that we are going to run out of fossil fuels eventually. It's going to happen so why not transfer to renewable energy? Even though it may cost a little more, it's helping our environment! We NEED to keep our environment clean and healthy. Not doing that can kill off species of both plants and animals. Why risk lives? Save the world! Go Renewable!


3. Recycle- converting waste into a reusable material

Everyone should recycle. It helps save energy. If you recycle you make manufacturers not have to make something completely new from raw natural resources. Recycling keeps production cost down and reduces the need for landfills.

Great Pacific Garbage Patch

4. Great Pacific Garbage Patch- it is a gyre of marine debris particles in the North Pacific Ocean.

It is highly impossible to clean up all of this debris. There is a chance we could help stop so much going into the ocean by not throwing trash on the beaches or in waters. It is highly impossible, but something needs to be done.



Desert- a dry, barren area of land (North and South America, Australia, Africa)

Abiotic factors- a lot of sunlight, little to no precipitation, sand, little vegetation

Biotic factors- scorpions, lizards, snakes, coyotes, spiders, cacti, & stonecrops

Tundra- a vast, flat, treeless Arctic region (Alaska, Canada, Rissia, Greenland)

Abiotic factors- strong winds, rainfall, short summer days & long and cold winters, permafrost layer

Biotic factors- polar bears, arctic foxes, wolves, falcons, caribou, mosses, & liverworts



Primary Producer- Lichens, Grasses, & Arctic Wildflowers

Primary Consumer- Insects, Arctic Hare, Lemming, Musk Ox, Caribou (Herbivores/Decomposers)

Secondary Consumer- Hawk & Wolf (Omnivore) (Scavengers)

Tertiary Consumer- Polar Bear (Carnivore)

Quaternary Consumer- Humans (Omnivore)

Dead Zones

7. Dead Zones- areas in a body of water who have oxygen levels not adequate to support life.

These are caused by excessive nutrient pollution from human activities. It comes from the Mississippi River. A high quantity of nitrogen and phosphorous is what the Mississippi River is draining into the Gulf of Mexico. This is caused by runoffs of fertilizers, soil erosion, animal waste, and sewage.

To help reduce this problem there are some solutions. We can use less fertilizers, control animal waste, monitor septic systems and sewage treatment facilities, and just limiting the discharge of nutrients, organic matter, and chemicals from manufacturing facilities.

Keystone Species

8. Keystone Species- a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if you removed the species, the ecosystem would change dramatically.


Grizzly Bear- keep dow several species, such as elk and moose. They carry and deposit seeds throughout the ecosystem. The bears that eat the salmon will usually have remains which leave nutrients for the soil. Without grizzly bears the elk and moose would overpopulate, plants wouldn't produce as fast and would most likely decrease, and the soil wouldn't be getting the right amounts of nutrients it's used to. The ecosystem would slowly die out. There wouldn't be enough good soil to grow as many plants which means the elk and moose wouldn't have much to eat.

Sea Otters- eat invertebrates, especially sea urchins. Helps keep the kelp alive. Without sea otters, the sea urchins would overpopulate and eat all of the kelp and destroy it. This would get rid of food and shelter for most of the ecosystem. Everything that used kelp to survive would die off.

Competitive Exclusion

9. Competitive Exclusion- theory that two species competing for the same resource cannot coexist at constant population values, if other ecological factors remain constant.


Red squirrel vs. Grey squirrel- The red squirrel is native to Britain but as soon as the grey squirrel was introduced to Britain, it adapted to the parks and gardens replacing the red squirrel.

Cheetahs vs. Lions- Cheetahs and lions have the same prey. They both know that eventually they will run out of a food source. Sometimes the lion will steal the food of the cheetah. If this keeps happening, the lion will then become the dominant species and the cheetah will eventually have to find a new location/food source or die off.

Getting to Know Your Vocabulary...


Coexistence- the living together of two species in the same habitat EX: The elephant and giraffe coexist in the safari. They both graze upon taller trees.

Parasites- feeds off the prey causing harm but not death immediately EX: Ticks take the blood out of animals. Tapeworms attach themselves to the inside of animals intestines. They deprive animals of nutrients for food.

Mimicry- phenomenon through one species has evolved to assume appearance of another EX: The Robber Fly mimics the bee to scare off potential predators. Owls camouflage themselves as trees from predators.

Mutualism- interaction between two species that benefits both of them EX: The oxpeckers go on the backs of rhinos and eat the parasites that are on the rhino. This gives the bird food and the rhino has pest control. Bees land on flowers to get the nectar to form honey, while the flower gets its seeds pollinated.

Commensalism- interaction between two species where one benefits and the other doesn't EX: Barnacles attach to whales for food and shelter. Mites attach to wasp, flies, or beetles for transportation.

Carbon Cycle

11. Carbon Cycle- the circulation of carbon atoms in the biosphere as a result of photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide into complex organic compounds by plants, which are consumed by other organisms.

Today humans are moving more carbon into the atmosphere when they burn fossil fuels and forests.

Global Dimming

12. Global Dimming- decrease in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface of the Earth.

Global dimming usually affects areas with a great amount of factories who produce aerosols. The Northern Hemisphere is more affected than the Southern Hemisphere. Europe and Russia are the main places for global dimming along with Asia, North America, and Antarctica. It is a problem because we aren't getting enough precipitation. This causes droughts. It also causes acid rain, smog, and respiratory diseases in humans.

Greenhouse Effect

13. Greenhouse Effect- process where radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

The carbon cycle has been releasing more carbon from the factories. This effects the greenhouse effect because it has been increasing Earth's temperature. It produces more CO2 in the air.

Endangered Species

14. Endangered Species- species which have been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List as likely to become extinct.

These species become extinct from changing environments or predators. If the species were a keystone species then the environment would overpopulate with plants/animals it doesn't need, not grow properly, or weaken the ecosystem in general. An example of an endangered species is the Sea Otter. We should care about the endangered species because a lot of them help the ecosystems evolve. Without these species our world would change and not for the better. Our food supplies in the oceans and lakes would change. Our forest would change. Everything would fall apart.

Invasive Species

15. Invasive Species- plants, animals, or pathogens who are non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm.


Lion fish- They prey on the native fish and have venomous spikes. Arrived through aquarium trade at Morris and Whitfield in 2009.

Zebra mussels- Competes with native species, gets rid of nutrients in the water, and clogs pipes. Arrived through ballast water.


16. Rainforest are very valuable. Most rainforest plants hold valuable drugs for medicine. Without them, we wouldn't have medicine or possible cures for diseases. Rainforest are being cut down for timber, agriculture areas, land for people to live, paper, road construction, and extraction for minerals and energy. If all rainforest disappeared half of the world's plants and animals would die. We would no longer have a source of healthiness. Our medicine would be gone. Global warming would be higher than its ever been. Even our food source comes from the forest! Our world would start declining dramatically if we no longer had rain forests.

Human Overpopulation

17. Human overpopulation is a major concern. Overpopulation has resulted into global warming, environmental pollution, habitat loss, the sixth mass extinction, intense farming practices, and the consumption of finite natural resources. Humans need A LOT to survive. We need cars, gas, food, water, housing, etc. Fulfilling our needs is tearing the world apart. We are killing Earth. If we keep growing, there will no longer be land for us all to live on. We would run out of resources. There would be no food or clean water.


18. Pesticide- a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or animals.

These affect the environment because they can flow into streams or seep through the soil into ground water. This affects species in the rivers, lakes, or oceans. They also can poison people, livestock, or wildlife if not taken care of properly. Pesticides can change the gene pool of plants. This changes the crops production by making it rely on certain substances.

“If the bee disappeared off the face of the Earth, man would only have 4 years left to live.”

19. This quote was written by Maurice Maeterlinck. It means that without bees, we would eventually die. Bees are responsible for 70% of the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds that we consume on a daily basis. That means 70% of the food we eat would disappear. Plants would have a hard time trying to pollinate. We would personally have to pollinate the plants. Without bees, there is little life and little food source.

Year 2070

20. If it was year 2070, the world would be different. We would run out of very liable resources. All or most of the rainforest would be gone. Global warming would be off the roof. Food sources would be running low. Most of our national parks would be destroyed for land. Our world would be full of hunger and factories. We wouldn't have many areas that have a great amount of vegetation. Life would look sad for my grandchildren. Technology might be incredible but the Earth would be falling apart.