New Caledonia

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Landforms of New Caledonia

Lakes: Eatang Saint-Nicholas, Grand Lac, lac en huit, mare aux canards, peabe, tegueni,tiae

Rivers: Madeleine Falls,Creek à Poindimié,Embouchure de la Néra,Rive droite du delta de la Néra.

Mountains: Mont Panié,Mount Humboldt


Tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Plants and Animals


-Amborella the oldest plants on the planet going back 130 million years, pine trees,

Giant fern trees that grow up to 65 ft tall ,Araucarians, Out of 41 species in the family Araucariaceae, eighteen are endemic to New Caledonia. Royal creeper, which is a type of vine

-The roussette is a large fruit eating flying fox. It has a 60 cm and even 80 cm, wingspan. His head is fine and pretty, similar to a fox head. When they do not fly, roussettes hang head down in trees. It is mostly a nocturnal animal, but they were often seen flying above canopy of the river forests in New Caledonia bush.

-Rusa deer,Cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and horses,green pigeon,and parakeets are more animals.

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Natural Resources

nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper

Nickel mining activities cause important sedimentation of the lagoon.


Habitation of the New Caledonia region dates back to around 3000 BC when it was settled by the ancestors of the Micronesian peoples, and 2,000 years later by Polynesians. European sighting of the islands first occurred in 1774 by Captain James Cook. Further European involvement led to the French annexing the region in 1853. Based upon the British model that appeared to have been successful in Australia, Napolean III, Emperor of France, directed the establishment of a substantial penal colony. Free traders soon followed, and the discovery of nickel in the 1860s led to the establishment of a mining economy.

People and Languages

Melanesian 44.1%, European 34.1%, Wallisian & Futunian 9%, Tahitian 2.6%, Indonesian 2.5%, Vietnamese 1.4%, Ni-Vanuatu 1.1%, other 5.2% they speak English, French and Bislama.
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Land Use

Some of their crops are wheat, maize, rice, citrus, coffee, and rubber.

--They mine chrome and nickel

---tourists take tours around the islands

----Nickel remains by far the main export commodity, still well ahead of seafood and fruits, although the share of the latter items is fast increasing. Imports mainly consist of processed foodstuffs and manufactured goods. Coverage of imports by exports has varied between 45 and 75% over the last 10 years, fluctuating with the nickel price. It is the best Export/Import ratio among the French overseas provinces.

Religion and Education

RELIGIONS: Mostly Christians with 63% of the population Roman Catholic while 33% are Protestant. There is also a minority of Sunni Muslims which make up 4% of the population.


Primary from 1st grade to 5th grade ages 6-11

Middle from 6-10th grade, ages 11-15 if they wish, students may complete their schooling and start a job.

Secondary from 11-13th grade, ages 16-19 (not necessary for students that are going to college.

Traditions Customs and Food


1. One of the most important element of the culture is the music and the traditional dance "Pilou" which tells stories about important events such as births, marriages...

2. New Caledonia has a tradition called Melanesian. Melanesia ways are love and respecting each other, making friends easily with strangers, sharing what is had with others and having a heart for those in trouble or need.

3. Festivals offer a unique chance to see traditional costumes and dances of the Kanak.


1.When visiting a tribe, do not forget to adhere to the local customs. This means offering a small gift to the tribe chief as a sign of respect.

2. It is about recognizing one another. Verbal exchanges rely on donations, of which the most important are traditionally the Kanak currencies representing the ancestor of the clan and the sacred yams.

3.By the customary gesture, they recognize the hierarchy of chiefdom (leadership), its different structures based on rights and an administration similar to that of a village. In the tribes, there is an order, a power to be respected. Therefore, from the leadership they have to ask permission to access the sea, the mountains, and travel on the lands belonging to the tribe.


1.- Bougna, a traditional meal among the native Melanesians, which consists of some form of meat, pork, chicken, fruitbat, crab, etc, along with roots such as yams and sweet potatoes. This is wrapped in banana leaves and cooked under hot rocks heated in a fire.

2. Coconut crabs, which is a crab like crustacean that climbs coconut trees to eat the nuts found in the trees, also called a "robber crab"

3. Fruitbats, which is a bat with a large snout and large eyes that feeds on fruit or neater.

Current Issues and Challenges

-erosion caused by mining exploitation and forest fires,

--Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions

---Deforestation, desertification,