Peloponnesian War

By: Esther S. Savannah S. Shay J. and Jihan K.

Timeline of the Peloponnesian War

545 BC-Battle of the 300 champions

478 BC- the Delian league was founded

469 BC- Archidamus was the Spartan king

457 BC- 1st Battle of Tanagra

447 BC- Battle of Coronea

433 BC- Battle of Sybota

433 BC- the Athens were allied with Corcyra

432 BC- Battle of Potidaea

429 BC- Battle of Chalcis

429 BC- The Battle of Naupactus

429 BC- Pericles died from the plague

429 BC- Battle of Rhium

428-427 BC- The Mytilenean revolt

426 BC- Aetolian campaign

426 BC- The Battle of Idomene

426 BC- 2nd Battle of Tanagra

426 BC- Battle of Olpae

425 BC- Battle of Pylos

425 BC- Battle of Sphacteria

424 BC- Battle of Delium

424 BC- The battle of Megara

422 BC- Battle of Amphipolis

418 BC- The Battle of Mantinea

415 BC- The Battle of Melos

415-413 BC- Sicilian Expedition

411 BC- Battle of Cynossema

411 BC- Battle of Eretria

411 BC- Battle of Syme

410 BC- Battle of Cyzicus

410 BC- Battle of Abydos

406 BC- Battle of Arginusae

406 BC- The Battle of Mytilene

406 BC- Battle of Notium-AKA Ephesus

405 BC- Battle of Aegospotami

371 BC- The Battle of Leuctra

The Battles

Aetolian campaign: during 426 BC in Aetolian. It was an Aetolian victory. , was a failed Athenian offensive in northwestern Greece during the Archidamian War.

Battle of Abydos: It was an Athenian naval victory in the Peloponnesian War. During 410 BC. Was in Hellespont near Abydos.

Battle of Aegospotami: took place in 405 BC, where which is now turkey, and was the last major battle in the Peloponnsian war. Decisive Spartan victory; Athens is besieged and surrenders. End of Peloponnesian War.

Battle of Amphipolis: Was fought in 422 BC in Amphipolis. Between the Athens and the Sparta. Was a decisive Spartan victory.

Battle of Arginusae: During 406 BC in the Arginusae Islands. Was an Athenian victory.

Battle of Chalcis: Took place in 429 BC at Chalcidice. Result: Athenian defeat

Battle of Coronea: In 447BC and also known as the First Battle of Coronea. The result was: Boeotian victory.

Battle of Cynossema: During 411 BC off Cynossema, in the Thracian Chersonese. And it was a Athenian victory

Battle of Cyzicus: Durind 410 BC near Cyzicus, Hellespont, modern-day Turkey. Result was: Decisive Athenian victory

Battle of Delium: In 424 BC and in Dellium between the Athenians and the Boeotians. The Boeotians won.

Battle of the 300 champions

-545 BC

-between Argos as Sparta

-both sides agreed to put 300 of their best men against each other

Battle of Tanagra

-457 BC

-between Athens and Sparta

-took place in Tanagra

Battle of Sybota

-433 BC

-took place on Corfu Island

-between Corcyra and Corinth

Battle of Potidaea

-432 BC

-fought near Potidaea

-one of the catalysts for the Peloponnesian war

-fought between Athens and a combination of Corinth and Potdaea

Battle of Rhium

-429 BC

-also known as Battle of Chalcis

-between Athenian fleet and Peloponnesian fleet (made up of various states)

Battle of Olpae

-426 BC

-between armies led by Athens and Sparta

-Athenian victory

Battle of Tanagra

-there was another Battle of Tanagra that took place earlier (457 & 426 BC)

-between Athens and Tanagra and Thebes

-took place in Tanagra

Battle of Pylos

-425 BC

-took place at peninsula of Pylos

-between Athens and Sparta

-Athenians won

Battle of Sphacteria

-425 BC

-between Athens and Sparta

-Athens won

Sicilian Expedition

-415-413 BC

-Athenian expedition to Sicily

-took place during Peloponnesian War

-took place in Sicily

Battle of Syme

-411 BC

-between Athens and Sparta

-took place near Island of Syme

Battle of Eretria- September of 411 B.C. The Athenians tried to prevent the Euboeans from switching sides by sending some people to Eretria, but the Eretrians supported the Spartans. While the Athenians were in the harbour of Eretria in order to supply themselves, the Eretrians informed the Spartans that it was a good time to attack. The Athenians attacked but they were defeated during the naval battle afterwards. The Athenians who tried to take cover in Eretria were killed by the people in the town.

The Battle of Idomene-was a battle in the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, between the Athenians and the Ambracians.

The Battle of Leuctra- fought on July 6, 371 BC, between the Boeotians and the Spartans. Took place in the neighborhood of Leuctra. Boeotians won.

The Battle of Mantinea- 418 BC was a very important battle in the Peloponnesian War. Sparta and its allies defeated an army led by Athens.

The battle of Megara was situated in the country of Megarid, between central Greece and the Peloponnese. 424 BC. The Athenians were repelled, and the Peloponnese army stayed, winning the battle.

The Battle of Melos was fought in 415 BC between Athens and Melos. Melos tried to stay neutral in the Peloponnesian War, but Athens attacked and forced Melos to surrender. Athenians won.

The Battle of Mytilene was a battle fought in 406 BC between Athens and Sparta. The Spartans won. It was fought in Mytilene.

The Battle of Naupactus was a naval battle in the Peloponnesian War. It was fought in 429 BC off the coast of Naupactus. The Athenians won with only 20 ships, against the peloponnisians with 77 ships.

Battle of Notium-AKA Ephesus-was fought in 406 BC, was a Spartan naval victory in the Peloponnesian War. It was fought near Notium and Ephesus.

The Mytilenean revolt was an incident in the Peloponnesian War where the city of Mytilene tried to get the island of Lesbos under its control and revolt from the Athenian Empire. It was fought in Lesbos from 428-427 BC and was an Athenian victory.

Allies of Sparta and Athens

The Spartans:

Two powerful allies that supported Sparta were:

Corinth: which was a city-state located on the isthmus of Corinth (narrow land bridge that connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the main land of Greece.)

It was a powerful city of Ancient Greece because it was the center of commercial traffic between Europe and Asia.

Corinth was also very wealthy because of the resources it had. The Corinthians were very intelligent and because they were rich, Corinthians afforded having powerful military equipment.

Sparta helped by ridding Corinth of tyranny or dictatorship because the ruler was using power unfairly.

Elis: which is an ancient district that is similar to the modern Elis Unit (part of the region of Western Greece).

Sparta helped Elis secure control of the Olympic Games.

Sparta continued to support their two allies so they could gain other allies in their league.

-The Athens were allied with many smaller city states in order to rule powerfully. These city states were known as the Delian League.

-The Delian league:

It was founded in 478 BC.

This league the association of Greek city states which had between 150 to 173 members.

The Athens used the leagues for its own purposes so this lead to conflict between Athens and the less powerful members of the league.

This caused the outbreak of the Peloponnesian war.

- In 433 B.C., the Athens were allied with Corcyra, a colony of Corinth, but it was an ally of Sparta. Beause of this, Sparta blamed Athens of attacking, so they threatened war.

Leaders of Spartan & Athenian Armies/Societies

Athenian leader during peloponnesian war: Pericles

He was responsible for rebuilding Athens for the Persian war.

Pericles died from the plague that spread throughout the city in 429 B.C two and a half years after the peloponnesian war began.

He was very important that the era in which he lived in (5th century B.C) was known as the Age of Pericles.

He had temples and shrines that were built to other gods in order to replace those who were destroyed by the Persians during wars.

Spartan leader during the Athenian army: Archidamus

He was the Spartan king during 469 BC

He organized the defense of Sparta

Archidamus was believed

Outcome of War

Athens lost and Sparta won. It impacted Athens negatively; they lost their empire and never regained it, but they continued to live on a level of wealth. Sparta won and gained power, until they were beaten by the Thebes, 30 years later. The Greek were devastated and weakened.