Animal Cloning

By: Adam Tate, and Isaac Villarreal

Embryo Splitting

There are two main ways to clone an animal. One way is by embryo splitting. This is the oldest, and original way to make a clone. It is almost like making a twin. But this takes place in a lab rather than in a mother's womb, so it is obviously an artificial process. Researchers manually divide an embryo into two parts, and allow those parts to grow separately in a selected mother's womb. The genetics of these twins are identical, and are therefore a clone.

(From Biotech Guide)

Picture Citation: "Cloning." Cloning. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

This is the second method of cloning. It starts with separating any bodily cell, other than reproductive cells. In mammals, every somatic cell has two complete sets of chromosomes, whereas germs have one. Scientists transferred the nucleus of a somatic cell taken from an adult female of an animal species, to an egg cell where the nucleus had been removed from. With chemical manipulation, and cell transfer, the egg cell behaves like a normal zygote. The cloned baby then develops like an ordinary animal of that species. This process creates a clone of the animal from which the cell had been taken from.

Picture Citation: "Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education Website Archive." Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

(From Biotech Guide)

The Benefits of Animal Cloning

Cloning can allow people to improve the production of their business such as farming. Farmers can take superior genes from an animal or plant they prefer, and clone it. It can also allow researchers to save, or bring back species that are endangered or extinct. It can allow scientists to take out or turn off genes that cause cancer, diseases, and other infection, or syndromes. New technologies like cell therapy, and gene therapy can be improved by cloning. Cloning can provide dramatic improvements to industries, and other businesses/ resources.

Picture Citation: Seoul, Jennifer Veale /. "South Korea's Pet Clone Wars." Time. Time Inc., 10 Feb. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

(From Biotech Guide)

Disadvantages of Animal Cloning

Some disadvantages of animal cloning include things like how expensive it is, reduced genetic diversity, premature death, or death in the womb because of mismatching mitochondria, and the fact that animal cloning is still in development, and there could be errors.

Citation: "Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning Animals." OccupyTheory. N.p., 30 Sept. 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

Dolly the Sheep!

Animal Cloning was first invented around the 1950's, but in 1997, scientists cloned a sheep named Dolly. Although this is very cool, cloning wasn't really new. Farmers have been using animal cloning since the 50's to clone animals with superior traits. Although Dolly was considered a breakthrough because unlike the traditional practice of splitting an embryo, Dolly was a preexisting adult cell. This gave the idea, that you could take full grown cells instead of embryonic ones.

(From Biotech Guide)

Picture citation: "TIME Magazine Cover: Dolly, Cloned Sheep - Mar. 10, 1997." Time. Time Inc., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2015.

How this changes the world

Animal Cloning may sound dangerous, and destructive to nature and the way things are. However Cloning may become a premier practice in certain industries and can possibly change the world. So even though it has some setbacks, cloning is very helpful, and can save lots of businesses, and create new ones. Cloning can also help re balance the Biosphere by moderating the populations of certain species, and bringing back variety of extinct species.