Mine it, Drill it, Frack it...

Learn about mining, drilling, and fracking:)))

Surface Mining

What is surface mining?

Surface mining is a type of mining in which solid and rock overlaying the mineral deposit are removed.

Resources acquired?

  • Coal
  • Precious stones (diamonds)
  • Building stones (granite)

Sub-surface Mining

What is sub-surface mining?

Sub-surface mining consists of digging shafts into the earth to get material.

Resources acquired?

  • Oil
  • Coal
  • Minerals

Land Drilling Vs. Ocean Drilling

  • Land drilling is drilling deep holes under the earth's surface. Ocean drilling is drilling holes underneath the sea bed.
  • Both produce oil
  • Offshore drilling in America started in 1896 in California.
  • For most of the 19th and 20th centuries, America was the largest oil producing country in the world.
  • A big challenge for offshore drilling is technology. Technology is used to find the exact spot for drilling and to compute the data. If the drill misses the oil it can cost millions of dollars.
  • Environmental concerns- Ocean drilling can damage sea life, and cause destruction of ecosystems. Massive oil spills can happen, or other toxins can come up from the earth's surface that are contaminants. Land drilling can cause environmental disruption. Animals migration patterns get messed up from vehicle traffic, and noise pollution. Air and water can get polluted by all the toxic chemicals released.


What is fracking?

Fracking is the process of drilling down into the earth before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside.

Environmental effects?

  • Contamination of groundwater
  • Air pollution
  • Waste disposal...etc
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