A Technology Integration Model

What is SAMR?

SAMR is a technology integration model developed by Rueben Puentadura to help us evaluate how the use of technology is enhancing or transforming our students' learning experiences. There are four elements to this model: substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition.


At the substitution level, technology acts as a direct substitution with not functional change. For example, instead of keeping paper science journals students might type into a word processing program.


At this level, technology still functions as a substitution, but some functionality is added. The students might move their journal to an online source where others can comment.


Technology begins to transform the learning experience at this level. Perhaps students begin to collaborate using Google docs or a blog to reflect on learning together and dialogue with the teacher, each other, or even another classroom.


The learning experience is transformed into something previously inconceivable. Students might begin to collaborate on the production of video lab reports and share them with others, allowing for commentary and discussion.

SAMR Model Illustrations

Whether you think of the SAMR model as a diving platform into deeper instruction, a ladder climbing up to higher-order thinking, or a wide variety of menu choices for student engagement, the illustrations below may help you gain a greater understanding of the SAMR process.

Diving Deeper

The SAMR Swimming Pool

Climbing the Ladder

Introduction to the SAMR Model

Menu Options

The SAMR Model and Starbucks