AP Gov



We discussed the two clauses of the first amendment that pertain to freedom of religion. They are the Establishment Clause and Freedom of Exercise Clause. The Court Case Lemon v. Kurtzman stated that public schools cannot teach religion to students. It created the three pronged Lemon Test.

1. The activity must have a secular purpose.

2. It neither advances nor inhibits religion.

3. It does not create "excessive entanglement" between church and state.

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The right to privacy is the right for an individual to be left alone and make decisions freely, without the interference of others. The court case Roe v. Wade said that the right to abortion is private and can only be interfered under certain circumstances. The right to privacy is difficult because of the new challenges social media poses.


The 4th amendment protected citizens from unfair treatment by law enforcement. For example, you cannot get a search warrant without a probable cause. The court case Mapp v. Ohio incorporated the Exclusionary Rule, which stated that evidence gathered illegally cannot be used at court. The 5th amendment protects citizens from double jeopardy and self-incrimination. The case Miranda v. Arizona established that certain rights must be read at the time of arrest. These include: right to remain silent, any statement you make can and will be used against you, the right to the presence of an attorney (established by Gideon v. Wainwright).
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We discussed the 2nd amendment and learned that it was not incorporated into state law until 2010. McDonald v. Chicago makes this amendment applicable to the states. We also discussed our opinions on gun control laws, whether they should be a reserved power, and what we feel the next president should do in terms of it.


We discussed the distinction between CIvil Rights and Civil Liberties. Also, we learned about inherent characteristics- race, religion, national origin, or gender- and suspect classifications. Inherent characteristics are attributes and suspect classifications are distinctions made based on these attributes. There are three different tests used to determine the legality of discrimination: strict, heightened, and ordinary.
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