War of 1812
Causes, Effects and Events
Causes of the War
- British impressment of US sailors. Impressment is the kidnapping of American sailors and forcing them to serve in the British Navy.
- Shipping interference. Britain set up a blockade of the east coast preventing trade between America and any other nation. The blockade created a shortage of cotton cloth in the United States.
- British supported and encouraged American Indian resistance against Americans in the Northwest Territory. They provided them with weapons and other means of support in hopes that the American Indians would remove settlers from the area.
- War Hawks - these congressmen of the United States persuaded Congress and the president to support a declaration of war against Britain
#1 The Battle of Tippecanoe
#2 The Fight for the Great Lakes
#3 US invades Canada
With Lake Erie in American hands, the British and their American Indian allies tried to pull back from the Detroit area. Harrison and his troops cut them off. In the fierce Battle of the Thames on October 5, the great leader Tecumseh was killed. The Americans also attacked the town of York (present-day Toronto, Canada) burning the parliament buildings. Canada remained unconquered, but by the end of 1813 the Americans had won some victories on land and at sea.
#4 Fort McHenry
#5 Attack on Washington DC
#6 Battle of New Orleans
#7 The Treaty of Ghent
The War in a Nutshell
2. It began on the Great Lakes.
3. We invaded Canada!
4. The British attacked and invaded Washington, DC and burned the White House!
5. It ended at New Orleans.
6. Andrew Jackson was the war hero.
7. The war established the US as a country with an identity of being a powerful force.
8. No territory was gained or lost and there was no clear winner!
Effects of the War
- The United States gained a measure of international respect for managing to withstand the British attack.
- Improved the professionalism of the US Army.
- The manufacturing capabilities of the US expanded. Since the blockade had caused a shortage of cotton cloth, the cotton-manufacturing industry was created. The United States had to rely on US made goods instead of imports.
- Numerous manufacturing establishments (factories) were founded particularly in the North and the South was able to increase its agricultural economy. The United States industrially independent of Europe.
- Improvements were made to transportation routes including the building of roads and canals. These provided for movement of goods.
- Tariffs were placed on imported goods which helped to promote US manufacturing.