Keystone Review Guide

Juan and Aaron

Water characteristics

  1. water heat more slowly and retains heat longer than many other substances.
  2. Cohesion is an attraction between substances of the same kind.
  3. surface tention is when a thin layer of water molecules are bounded together by hydrogen bond. (ex: people holding hands)
  4. Water is attracted by similarly polar substances. Adhesion is an attraction of different substances.
  5. Because of Adhesion things can get wet because of the attraction of different kinds
  6. Polarity enables substances from dissolving in water.Ionic compounds and polar molecules dissolve best in water. Non-polar molecules do not dissolve in water
  7. acids are when compounds form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
  8. compounds that reduce the concentration of hydrogens ions in a solutions is call bases
  9. Ph is the level of acidic acid. it goes from 0-14 (water is 7)


  1. Macromolecules are made of carbon
  2. have to be made of carbon to be organic
  3. Types of Macromolecules are Carbohydrates (sugar), Proteins, Lipids (fat), and Nucleic Acids


    1. Carbohydrates are organic compounds made of hydrogen (H), carbon (C), and Oxygen. Key sours of energy for the body. Ratio of c 1:2:1. food in most food.
    2. types are monosaccharides. Fucntion: basic source of energy.
    3. Disaccharides functions: Basic engery. examples are lactose
    4. Oligosaccharides functions: cellular sign posts
    5. Polysaccharides Function: Starch-engery bug covering. Example: cellulose.


  1. A protein is large molecule formed by linked smaller molecules called amino acids
  2. Amino acids are building blocks of proteins.
  3. There are twenty different amino acids found in proteins
  4. There are electric and non charge, as same for polar and non-polar
  5. There shape are determine by how they react with water and with each other (shape very important for a protein)
  6. Types of protein of are collage which is found in your skin, bones, tendons, etc
  7. proteins have many functions some help your muscles move others helps us cary oxygen from lungs to body tissues.

Nucleic Acids

  1. Nucleic acids are a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides.
  2. Nucleotides has three parts sugar, a base, and phosphate group. This contains phosphorus and oxygen atoms.
  3. Types of Nucleic Acids are DNA and RNA.
  4. DNA is made of two stander nucleotides that spiral around each other.