Equality for black people
One of the most significant movement that started the civil movement was in 1950s with Rosa Parks.The goal of the movement was to achieve equal rights for colored people and to put an end to racial discrimination and segregation.
The fight against racial discrimination caused great tensions and sparked violence all across the United States.
- I'm going to talk about also about Amelia Boynton; Amelia Boyton was a woman of many historical firsts and played a pivotal role in the civil rights movement. Her tireless and tenacious work even inspired MLK to join the Selma to Montgomery march in Alabama.
- Also I'm going to talk about Ella baker one of the most important women in the civil rights movement even if she was behind the scenes most of the time.
Strategies and Tactics
All the tactics and strategies were made and used by groups at the far left and the far right.
The philosophy of non-violence was based in religion and common sense. To succeed Non-violent protest needed not just the support of the majority of the black population but the population's active participation(black churches). When Montgomery activists wanted to organize the bus boycott they turned to the ministers of the leadership. Their actions under the leadership of Martin Luther King to change the future and make it peacelful and worth it. MLK preached love,self-sacrification and respect for black people during the boycott. Colored people had to prove the northen whites that they have to be respected too and denied their contitutional rights as American citizens.
Some of the strategies were:
Moral suasion:use of guilt to generate moral behavior.
Civil disobedience:A lot of social movements in the United States whose goals were to end the racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans and to make sure that the national constitution law will change for colored people.
Forms and famous acts of disobedience were including boycotts such a successful as the Montgomery Movement in Alabama, or the influential Greensboro In the North of Carolina; marches as the one of Selma in Alabama.
Selma to Montgomery marches was a successful movement which made the whole black community to go out in the streets and fight for their rights and respect. Making those marches the whole summer of 1965 finally they got what they wanted.The congress finally led some black people from the south the right to vote.
Top 5 Events
Montgomery Bus Boycott, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
The Bus boycott movement started on December 5,1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to let a white woman to seat on her bus seat. December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect and led to a United States supreme court decision that declarate the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional. Martin Luther King jr.was one of the most importants leaders in the boycott.
The little Rock Nine was a group of nine African Americans students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which students were initially prevented from the racial segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. Then they attended after the president Dwight D. Eisenhower help. By the 1957, the NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the previously all-white Little Rock Central High, selected on the criteria of excellent grades and attendance. Called the " Little Rock Nine" they were Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta walls Lanier, Minnijean Brown, Gloria Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed and Melba Pattillo Beals.
The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism which occurred at the African-American baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama. On September 15, 1963, when four members on the kkk planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the front steps of the church. As Martin Luther King said " was oje of the most vicious and tragic crimes ever done it against humanity". The explosion at the church killed four girls and injured 22 others.
Emmett Louis Till( July 25, 1941- August 28, 1955)
Was an African-American teenager who was lynched in Mississipi at the age pf 14 after he was flirting with a white woman. He spoke with a 21 year old called Carolyn Bryant, the married owner of a small grocery store there. Several nights after that Bryant's husband Roy and his half brother J.W went to Till's great uncle's house and grabbed him. They took him away from the house, they beat him and then they shoot him and threw his body in the Tallahatchie River. Threw days later, Till's body was found and taken away from the river.
20,000 Blacks and whites gather at the Lincoln Memorial to hear speeches against racism, among them MLK's " I have a dream".August 28,1963.
They marched and protested non-violently, raising the local officials who sicced water cannon and police dogs on the marches, whose ranks included teenagers and children. The publicity and break down of business forced the white leaders of Birmingham to concede come anti-segregation demands.
Little Rock Nine
How thwy had to go to school with people screaming at them and being disrespectful.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Separate seats for black and white people in the bus.
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
4 girls died and 22 people got hurt.
Amelia Boynton ( August 18,1911- August 26,2015)
To protest continuing segregation and racism against black people, in early 1965 Amelia Boynton helped organize a march to the state capital of Montgomery, initiated by James Bevel, which took place on March 7,1965.