by georgia stone
This leaflet is about computer components.
A component is where there are individual bits put together to make a computer and if u don't have one of the components then it wont work. The components to make a computer that are needed are: motherboard, processor, CPU cooler, RAM, hard drive, optical drive, graphic card.
motherboard: a printed circuit board containing the principal components of a computer or other device, with connectors for other circuit boards to be slotted into.
processor: the computer processes something
CPU cooler: A device that draws heat away from a CPU chip and other hot-running chips such as a graphics processor (GPU). The simplest type of cooler is a heat sink, which is a metal cover glued to the chip that provides a larger surface area for heat dissipation.
RAM: RAM (pronounced ramm) is an acronym for random access memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.
hard drive: a disk drive used to read from and write to a hard disk.
optical drive: In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.
graphic card: Definition. A video card connects to the motherboard of a computer system and generates output images to display. Video cards are also referred to as graphics cards. Video cards include a processing unit, memory, a cooling mechanism and connections to a display device.
If it wasn't for Alan Turing then computers wouldn't exist today. Sadly he committed suicide 16 days before his 42nd birthday, some of his family believed it was accidental.
the four generations of computures
Each generation increases in reliability, speed, efficiency and ease of use and decreases in cost & size.
The first Generation (1945 - 1955)
- Very large computers made up of vacuum tubes and often programmed using wiring plugboards
- Programmed using machine language
- Mostly used for numerical calculations as working out mathematical tables
- No OS
The Second Generation (1955 - 1965)
- Mainframes made up of transistors
- Mainframes made up of transistors
- At first punch cards were used to provide input, then tapes were used (for batch processing)
- Used Assemblers and FORTRAN compilers for program writing
-Simple batch processing was used with input files, programs and output on tape
- Smaller computers (e.g. IBM 1401) was used to read programs and data on punch cards on to input tapes and for offline printing
- Used mainly for scientific and engineering applications
- FMS (Fortran Monitor System) and IBM IBSYS as OSs for handling jobs (e.g. to read a job and to run it)
The Third Generation (1965 - 1980)
-Mainframes based on small scale ICs were used.
- Capable of multiprogramming (running several jobs at the same time)
- Fixed disks were used and new jobs on cards to be executed could be read on to the disk while executing other jobs (spooling)
- Though the first models used multiprogrammed batch processing, to cater to increased response time, timesharing was introduced later (Time-sharing Systems)
- Complex OSs as OS/360 were used.
- Used for various applications including scientific and business applications
- Mini computers also appeared on the market which were used by small departments etc. and became the platform for UNIX.
The Fourth Generation (1980 . . . )
- Mainframes, Minicomputers, Workstations, Personal Computers (Desktop and portable) based on VLSI components
- Network operating systems that facilitate file sharing, remote logging etc. and Client Server computing.
- Distributed OSs that make use of multiple machines and processors to run applications.
- GUI based OS interfaces and applications.
- Virtual Machines and Network Computers (NCs)