Exam Study Guide

IPS period 6 By Andie Weinberg

Safety

GOGGLES MUST BE KEPT OVER YOUR EYES!

CHEMICALS

Never taste or touch chemicals. Only waft to smell liquids. Never waft solids or powders.


SAFETY EQUIPMENT IN THE CLASS ROOM

AT THE END OF THE EXPERIMENT CLEAN UP YOUR AREA AND MATERIALS COMPLETELY!!

GLASS

Hot glass and cold glass look the same. Never use chipped or broken glass. Also, never use force to remove or insert glass.


Alcohol Burners

Roll up sleeves, put up long hair, never walk away from a lit burner, never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else, do not look down into a test tube or beaker while it is being heated, and make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done.


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Purpose of the reaction in a bag lab

To record the observations that occur when multiple chemical substances are combined, and to use my observations to understand the reactions of chemicals.


pH scale

  • Measures acidity
  • goes from 0-14
  • 0-- is acidic
  • 7-- is neutral
  • --14 is alkaline
  • lemon juice 1.5
  • tums 10


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PURPOSE FOR 1.1 LAB

To observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated.


Why do you think baking soda is used in baking?

It releases gas when heated, which helps the batter to rise.


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Box Questions:

3. 50 Cubic centimeters of water are required to fill a graduated cylinder to the 50- mL mark.



4. Box A must have a greater width or height if the length of box A is less than B.


5. The volume of the stone is 7 cubic centimeters if the water was at 25.0 centimeters cubed then it went to 32.0 centimeters cubed.


6a. 8 cubes are needed to build a cube that measures 2 cm along each edge.

6b. 27 cubes are needed to build a cube that measures 3 cm along each edge.

6c. 8 cubic centimeters and 27 cubic centimeters is the volume of each of the cubes.


7. Box B (25 cm long, 16 cm wide, and 15 cm deep) is bigger than box A (30 cm long, 15 cm wide, and 10 cm deep).


8. The marks on the cone-shaped cylinder are not equally spaced because the more you go up the larger the width becomes.


9a. Line I is 1.3 centimeters, and line II is 3.8 centimeters.

9b. Line III is 1.65 centimeters, live IV is 2.51 centimeters, and live V is 4.50 centimeters. You cannot estimate their positions to the 0.0001 centimeter because it would be inaccurate.

9c. There are tick marks to show us a more exact answer.


10. On cylinder A each tick mark represents 0.1 and on cylinder B each tick mark represents 0.2.


11. The level of liquid in Figure A is 4.0, and Figure B is 1.30.


12. They could have rounded from 11.5-12.4 for the first one, 11.95-12.04 for the second one, and 11.995-12.004 for the third one.


13. The advantage to making graduated cylinders narrow and tall rather than short and wide is that it is easier to read. The lines are further apart because there is less surface and more depth.


Control group in 1.1 lab was the unheated test tube.

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EXPERIMENTAL GROUP IN 1.1 LAB WAS THE HEATED TEST TUBE.

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THE INDICATOR IN 1.1 LAB WAS THE TEA.

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LAB 1.1: independant variable: the temperature (in this case heat)

LAB 1.1: DEPENDENT VARIABLE: COLOR OF TEA.

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VOLUME

Use a graduated cylinder to measure volume. *Always check interval or scale*


BALANCE

Unit of measurement is cubic centimeters.



Standard unit of length is the meter.


Unit of weight is the gram.

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Test 1

In a rectangular box of the following measurements were found: six cubes fit exactly along one edge, and five cubes fit exactly along another edge. However, after seven horizontal layers had been stacked in the box, a space at the top was left unfilled.

If the height of the space was half the length of an edge of a unit cube, what was the volume of the box?


A: 225 cubes


If the height of the space was 0.47 of the length of an edge of a unit cube, what was the volume of the box?

A: 224.1 cubes

To stay physically fit, Mr. Leeds is constantly training (and injuring himself). He weighs a trim 178 lbs. What is his weight in kilograms?

A: about 81 kilograms


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Did any of the students make a mistake in their massing?

One of the students made an error. Student #3 was far below the others. the range in the sensitivity of a balance is 0.02 or below. Here it was 0.045.


During the Heating bakind soda experiment a lab group does not realize that they have a hole in their rubber tubing. How will this affect their understanding of the lab?

This will affect their understanding because the gas from the baking soda will not be able to travel to the inverted bottle. Therefore they will not know that baking soda produces a gas.


Here are the ingredients in mr. Leeds famous pumpkin bread. Next to each ingredient identify which are measured by mass, volume, or other means.

3 cups flour- volume


1 tablespoon baking powder- volume

1 1 pound can of pumpkin- mass

1/2 teaspoon vanilla- volume

cinnamon to taste- other

1/2 cup milk- volume

Auditorium- Count; Saucepan- Volume; Bridge- Mass; water tank- Volume

Sand lab experimental errors:

- sand sticks to sides of wet cylinder


- pour water into sand (water sits on top of sand because the air spaces dont allow the water to filter down)

Why were lab groups instructed to use different amounts of sand? (what was the purpose?)

To show that everybody gets about the same amount of air space which is approximately 40%.


Sand Lab box questions #14-17

MASS NOTES

Box questions #18-22

Sensitivity of a Balance Lab

Part A chart

#1 mass of penny (g)- 3.171

mass of stopper (g)- 7.729

#2 mass of penny (g)- 3.080

mass of stopper (g)- 7.720

#3 mass of penny (g)- 3.071

mass of stopper (g)- 7.671

#4 mass of penny (g)- 3.066

mass of stopper (g)- 7.669

Part B

Square Calculations (g)


Mass of 20 x 20

0.590

Mass of single square

0.001475

Mass of 4 squares

0.0059


Initial mass of stopper: 17.250 grams

# of group

D Mass (Yes or No)

Mass (g)

1

No

17.250

2

Yes

17.279

3

No

17.279

4

Yes

17.300

5

No

17.300

6

Yes

17.320

7

No

17.320

8

Yes

17.331

9

No

17.331

10

yes

17.339


Sensitivity of the balance

D Mass

0.089

Number of yes’s

5

Sensitivity

0.0178

sensitivity calculations

-delta m/number of yes's= sensitivity


- ending mass (#10)- initial mass of stopper= delta mass

box questions #26

Susan massed an object three times, using the same single-pan balance. Her results were 21.420 g, 21.425 g, and 21.410 g. How chould she best report the mass of the object.


A: by adding them and dividing by 3.

CHAPTER 2

2.1 Purpose

To figure out if the mass of salt decreases when salt dissolves in water


Experimental errors

- cleaned the pan between mi and mf

- outside of bottle is not wet during the mi

- not drying off the cap --> water in mi not mf

- spill salt when pouring into bottle

Histograms

Rules

Interval- from one line to another or middle to middle


rule- if data falls on a line it is graphed in the column to the right

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2.4 The ice, ice baby lab

Purpose

to figure out if the mass of ice will increase, decrease, or stay the same when it melts


formulas

bot/cap/ice-bot/cap=mi of ice

bot/cap/water-bot/cap= mf of water

mf-mi= delta mass

condensation and errors

on the bottle comes from warm water vapor in the air (humidity) when it touches cool surface of the bottle it turns from gas to liquid


**need change in temperature**

Experimental errors

2.5 The mass of copper and sulfur purpose

to figure out if the total mass increases, decreases, or stays the same when the copper and sulfur are heated together


2.5 Post-lab

-melting point of copper 1,100 degrees Celsius

-melting point of sulfur 112 degrees Celsius

-yellow smoke --> water in sulfur turns to vapor (gas) and rises in the test-tube

- when it cools --> sulfur bonds with copper and forms copper sulphide

experimental errors

-sulfur sticks to side of test-tube (doesn't react)

- hole in the rubber sheet or sheet is not on tightly--> gas can escape (lose)

- clean pan between mi and mf

2.6 the mass of a Gas

Purpose

to figure out if the mass will increase, decrease, or stay the same when a solid and a liquid produce a gas


Errors

-touch tablet after mi-decrease

- cap is wet during mi- lose mass

-water in the pan during mi- lose mass

- if cap not on tight or not on quick enough- lose mass

Alka-Seltzer

Antacid and Pain reliever:

-Aspirin, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate

**sodium bicarbonate- produces a gas when heated and mixed with water

Conservation of Mass Notes

Closed system

space where nothing can enter or leave


No delta Mass (considering sensativity)

Lab 2.1- 30%

Lab 2.4- 55%

Lab 2.5- 50%

Lab 2.6- 47%

The Law of Conservation of Mass

In a closed system mass would remain constant, regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed system.


Chapter 3

Characteristic properties

property of an object- does not tell you what it is made of

property of a substance- this helps you to identify what the object is made out of

3.2 Mass and Volume Lab

To figure out if the mass of a 1 cm^3 object will depend on its shape or the substance it is made of.


Errors

-Using the same long cylinder twice


- cylinder is wet when massed- mass increase

- dropping cylinder in, water splashes out- volume down

Mass and Volume Notes

Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume, will have the same mass (regardless of their shape)


The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles


Objects that have the same volume but are not made of the different substances will not have the same mass