By Matthew H. Deville and Vicky Galvan

The Universe

"The universe is all space, time, matter, and energy exists." - Components of the Universe.

We do not yet know how big the universe is but one thing we do know is that it is bigger than anything we know exists and it is still expanding. We can also say that the universe consist of billions and billions of Galaxies. Some also believe that there might even be a more than one universe all inside a multiverse and even more than one multiverses.

Light Years

Everything in space is very large including distance. Because of this scientists use a term that is easier to refer to when talking about space. This term is called light years. Light years is the distance it takes for light to travel in one year. One light year is 9,460,730,472,580,800 meters. To put into perspective of how large the universe is, the nearest star is 4.24 light years away and the nearest galaxy (Andromeda) is 2.5 million light years away or 2,538,000 light years. In other words if humans wanted to get to Andromeda, at the speed of light it would still take 2.5 million years to get there.


We are in the Milky Way, the Milky Way is a spiral shaped galaxy that turns clockwise. There area several types of galaxies. The types include spiral, irregular and elliptical galaxies. The nearest galaxy to us that is not ours is the Andromeda Galaxy. The Andromeda Galaxy is another spiral galaxy. Galaxies are bigger than a Solar System but smaller than a Universe. Galaxies are made of billions of stars, gas, and dust that is all held together with gravitational attraction.

Solar systems

We are in a solar system inside the Milky Way, there is an approximate 30 billion solar systems in the Milky Way. A solar system is a group of planets surrounding a star because of the gravitational pull of the star. In our solar system there are 8 planets and one star, we call our star the Sun.


A stare is a sphere of gas, dust and more combustible resources that produces heat, light, and radiation. Some stars stand out from the rest. Their brightness is a part of how much energy they put out (chemical to heat to light) . On a clear night about 3,000 or so stars are viable to the human eye. Stars don't always look the same, the main differences are luminosity, temperature, and mass. There is a type of graph used to display the luminosity and brightness of multiple stars, this is called the Herztsprung-Russell Diagram.

Stars, Herztsprung-Russell Diagram

The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram is a diagram that is used to display the luminosity, and temperature of stars. Another thing that you can tell from a Herztsprung-Russell Diagram is the sequence of a star, as you can see on the picture out sun is a yellow main sequence star, its near average temperature and heat. By looking at the diagram you can see just how bright, hot, cold and dark stars can be. As you can see the hottest and brightest is 20000 Tk and 10 to the 5th power of the brightness of the sun. That is probably emitting allot of radiation.

Stars, creation

Stars forming when giant dust and gas clouds start to clump together because of gravity. These clouds are made of mostly hydrogen and some helium. There are two different paths a star can take, this is decided by the mass of dust and gas that gathers. In both paths they start as a stellar nebula. For the first path (the one with the least mass) the order is stellar nebula, this is when the gasses are floating. Then average star, red giant, primary nebula, white dwarf. And the second goes massive star, red supergiant, supernova, then neutron star or black hole.

Black holes

Black holes are really a mystery. A black hole is a region of space with a gravitational pull so heavy that no matter without any exception that we know can escape it.

Rotation and Revolution

Rotation and revolution are at the base both caused by the gravitational pull from one object to another. The difference is rotation is the spinning of an object on it's axis and revolution is and object taking a long circular path around an entire object. For an example it takes earth 365 days to revolve around the sun and it takes earth 1 day to rotate on its axis with a tilt of 23' once.

The Beginning

There are many theory but remember there all theory's nothing is a hundred percent. One of the most common theory is the big bang theory. In this theory it is believed that the universe started as a singularity and it then expanded violently into what is now known as our universe today. The big bang theory is still going in today as the universe is spreading apart. Galaxy are moving apart from each other. It was one atom the blew up.

Thank you for watching!

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