The Cardiovascular System
Blood in Our Body
Amount of Blood
- Adult Males- 5 to 6 liters
- Adult Females- 4 to 5 liters
How is Blood Made and Where
- Blood is made in the bone marrow, the red bone marrow (primarily in flat bone).
- Blood cells are produced in bone marrow, a jelly like substance inside the bones that is composed of, fat, blood, and special cell that turn into the various kinds of blood cells.
- Stem cells (plenipotentiary hematupoietia), which has the potential to turn into any kind of blood cell.
- Stem cells develop in the marrow, they seep into the bloodstream.
- Red blood cells last 120 days, platelets about 10 days, and white blood cells last anywhere from days to years in the bloodstream.
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells
- Red blood cells are 40% - 45% in your bloodstream.
- Red blood cells deliver oxygen to every part of your body.
- Red blood cells also remove waste from your bloodstream.
- Red blood cells are like a round bean bag chair.
- erythrocyte is just another name for red blood cells.
- Hemoglobin; also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.( what makes the RBC red)
- oxyhemoglobin-the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells that gives them their red color and serves to convey oxygen to the tissues.
- Carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin by means of a reactive amino group on the latter, Hb-NHCOOH; approximately 20% of the total content of carbon dioxide in blood is combined with hemoglobin.
White Blood Cells
- White blood cells only actually count for 1% of your blood.
- White blood cells, also called leukocytes, are essential for good health and protection against illness and disease.
- Think of white blood cells as your immunity cells.
- They flow through your bloodstream to battle viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders that threaten your health.
- Granulocyte vs. agranulocyte- Granulocyte have grains inside of the cell and most enormous.
- 1st most numorous- Neutrophils
- 2nd most numerous- Lymphocytes
- 3rd most numerous- Monocytes
- 4th most numerous- Eosinophils
- 5th most rare- Basophils
- Platelets are about 1% of the bloodstream.
- The main function of platelets are to prevent bleeding.
- Platelets are the first thing that react to an injury. when you have a cut and the endothermic layer is broken, the tough fibers that surround a blood vessel are exposed to the liquid flowing blood.
- Platelets are only about 20% of the diameter of red blood cells, the most numerous cell of the blood.
- the normal platelet count is 15,000-350,000 per micro-litter, of blood.
- Platelets are so small they just take up a tiny fraction of the blood volume.
- Another name for platelets are Thrombocytes.
- Plasma is a clear liquid this is 90% water and is an essential ingredient for human survival.
- May seem like plasma is less important than the blood cells it carries, but that would be like saying the stream is less important than the fish swimming in it. You cant have one without the other.
- Plasma contains dissolved salt an minerals like; calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium.
- Antibodies travel to disease by hitching a ride in the plasma.
- Without plasma blood cells would be left without transportation.
- Plasma proteins, also termed serum proteins or blood proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and metals in the circulatory system and the regulation of acellular activity
- In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma with the fibrinogens removed.
- Human serum albumin is the most abundant blood plasma protein. Produced in the liver, albumin is an important component of life, where it transports essential fatty acids from adipose tissue to muscle tissue.
- globulin, one of the major classifications of proteins, which may be further divided into theeuglobulins and the pseudoglobulins. The former group is insoluble in water but soluble in saline solutions and may be precipitated in water that has been half-saturated with a salt such as ammonium sulfate.
- Fibrinogen (factor I) is a soluble, 340 kDa plasma glycoprotein, that is converted by thrombin into fibrin during blood clotting formation. Fibrinogen is synthesized in the liver by the heptocytes. The concentration of fibrinogen in the blood plasma is 200–400 mg/dL.
- PROTHROMBIN. : a plasma protein produced in the liver in the presence of vitamin K and converted into thrombin in the clotting of blood