Civil War

Mary Lor

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What is the Civil War?

It is a war between citizens of the same country.

The war began when the Confederates bombarded Union soldiers at Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861. The last battle was fought at Palmito Ranch, Texas, on May 13, 1865.

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Kansas Nebraska Act

  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the U.S. Congress on May 30, 1854.
  • It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders.
  • The Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act infuriated many in the North who considered the Missouri Compromise to be a long-standing binding agreement. In the pro-slavery South it was strongly supported.

Dred Scott Case

  • Dred Scott was a slave of an army surgeon, John Emerson.
  • Scott had been taken from Missouri to posts in Illinois and what is now Minnesota for several years in the 1830s, before returning to Missouri.
  • The Missouri Compromise of 1820 had declared the area including Minnesota free.
  • Scott sued for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived in a free state and a free territory for a prolonged period of time.
  • His case reached the Supreme Court. Court ruled that as a black man Scott was excluded from United States citizenship and could not, therefore, bring suit.

Fredericksburg

  • The Battle of Fredericksburg, fought December 11-15, 1862, was one of the largest and deadliest of the Civil War.
  • At the Battle of Fredericksburg, the town was destroyed, the Confederates won a important battle and Union leaders were greatly embarrassed.
  • The Battle of Fredericksburg was an early battle of the civil war and stands as one of the greatest Confederate victories. Led by General Robert E. Lee, the Army of Northern Virginia routed the Union forces led Maj Gen. Ambrose Burnside.
  • The Union forces were doing well at first until reinforcements came for the south. The Confederate Army started to gain ground and soon the Union forces were fleeing.

Emancipation Proclamation

  • Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22nd, 1862.
  • It stipulated that if the Southern states did not cease their rebellion by January 1st, 1863, then Proclamation would go into effect.
  • President Lincoln justified the Emancipation Proclamation as a war measure intended to cripple the Confederacy.
  • With the Emancipation Proclamation, the aim of the war changed to include the freeing of slaves in addition to preserving the Union.
  • Proclamation initially freed only the slaves in the rebellious states, by the end of the war the Proclamation had influenced and prepared citizens to advocate and accept abolition for all slaves in both the North and South.

Ending of the Civil War

The war ended in Spring, 1865. Robert E. Lee surrendered the last major Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865.
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