How Computers Work

Do you know how computers work???

Basics of computers

What a computer mostly needs is hardware,software, input, and output.

what things mean

Motherboard- it is where u find the main processing chips. the chips are made up of central processing unit which is also called CPU.

Hardware- is the monitor, keyboard, printer, mouse, and speakers.

Software- any operating information used by the computer like programs. Its tells the hardware what to do.

Input- telling the computer what to do by clicking anything or typing.

Output- It's where power or information leaves the system.

Computer Systems and network

Networking computers share their power by linking 2 or more computers together. To link 2 or more computer together they use something called '' the server''. They share there power so they can exchange applications and exchange data files and information.

Different types of computers

  • Tablets
  • Tv
  • Mobile
  • Game consoles
  • etc


If u want to print a page you click the print icon which tells the computer what to do. The software determines if there is a printer attached to the computer and if its turned on. If your computer is not turned on it will send a message saying to turn on the printer.

Most Computers are classified as :

  • Mainframe Computers
  • Mini computers
  • Micro Computers
  • Palm Top Computer
  • Embedded Computers

These are computer parts

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1 generation

The first generation began on 1956-1963. They used vacuum tubes to make it and it was the basic component for memory and circuitry for CPU. vacuum tubes are like electric bulbs, they produced heat, and were prone to frequent fusing of the installations. Only large organisations could afford it.

The main features were:

  • Vacuum tube technology
  • Unreliable
  • Supported machine language only
  • Very costly
  • Generated lot of heat
  • Slow input and output devices
  • Huge size
  • Need of A.C.
  • Non-portable
  • Consumed lot of electricity

2 Generation

The second generation started on 1956-1963. They used transistors to make it which were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size , reliable , and faster from the first generation vacuum tubes. The magnetic cores were used as primary memory,magnetic tape, and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.

The main features were:

  • Use of transistors
  • Reliable in comparison to first generation computers
  • Smaller size as compared to first generation computers
  • Generated less heat as compared to first generation computers
  • Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers
  • Faster than first generation computers
  • Still very costly
  • A.C. needed
  • Supported machine and assembly languages

3 Generation

The third generation started on 1964-1971. They used integrated circuits to make it. A single integrated circuit has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors. Integrated circuits were invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size, reliable, and efficient.

The main features were:

  • IC used
  • More reliable in comparison to previous two generations
  • Smaller size
  • Generated less heat
  • Faster
  • Lesser maintenance
  • Still costly
  • A.C needed
  • Consumed lesser electricity
  • Supported high-level language

4 Generation

The fourth generation started on 1971 and we still use it now. They used microprocessors to make it. This development of microprocessor made chips have ten million electronic components. This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and Artificial Intelligence software. AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets means and method of making computers think like human beings. It includes robotics, neural networks, game playing, development of expert systems, and natural language understanding.

The main features were:

  • ULSI technology
  • Development of true artificial intelligence
  • Development of Natural language processing
  • Advancement in Parallel Processing
  • Advancement in Superconductor technology
  • More user friendly interfaces with multimedia features
  • Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates