Homeostasis and Blood

Dr. Josh Linton

Characteristics

  • Blood accounts for 8% of human body weight
  • 45% red blood cells, 54.3% plasma, about .7% white blood cells, less than 1% platelets
  • Blood is produced in the bones.
  • Erythropoetin controls the production of blood in the body

Plasma

What it looks like- Plasma is a yellowish liquid that that contains fat, water, sugar, and proteins.

Function and homeostasis- Plasma carries all the essential nutrients in our blood in order for us to function normally.

Plasma donation- Plasma can be donated for us to make certain medicines for the people who have certain conditions that do not allow them to have blood clots to stop bleeding.

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Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

Characteristics- The Red Blood Cell is a biconcave disk with a flattened center. It almost looks like a doughnut. Is known for the red color of blood and accounts for about 40-45% of blood itself.

Function and homeostasis-The Red Blood Cells have a certain protein in them called, Hemoglobin, that carries the oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Then it returns the carbon dioxide (waste) back to the lungs so it can be exhaled.

Hematocrit test- A Hematocrit test is when they take a sample of your blood and test to see if you have too many, too few, or normal amount of red blood cells in your bloodstream. It is done by placing the sample into a centrifuge which spins the blood sample up really fast separating it into three categories, Erythrocytes, Plasma and other blood cells. They then can determine the amount of Erythrocytes by using proportions.

Hemoglobin- Hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs to all the muscles and parts of the body. Then it takes the waste and brigs it back to the lungs to be exhaled.

Anemia- Is a condition with the lack of Red Blood Cells or hemoglobin in your blood.

Iron Deficiency Anemia- Iron deficiency anemia is when your blood has low levels of iron in it. Iron is needed to help carry oxygen more effectively.

Treatments- Some treatments to this type of anemia is to take iron supplements or to eat iron rich foods. Which consists of, chicken, fish, meats (liver is best), peanut butter, and whole grain bread.

Hemolytic Anemia- Hemolytic anemia is a condition where the red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal life span.

Treatments- Blood transfusions, medicines, plasmapheresis, spleen removal surgery, and blood and marrow stem cell transplants.

Hemorrhagic Anemia- Also known as, acute blood loss anemia, is when you keep losing blood cells due to hemorrhaging or bleeding.

Treatments- The only treatments really is to stop the blood loss both internally and externally. After that, the most efficient way is to do blood transfusions with fresh whole blood.

Sickle Cell Anemia- Is where the blood cells are shaped like a sickle or a banana when they are produced. This is bad because they have a tendency to block the blood flow to limbs and cause pain and organ damage.

Treatments- since sickle cell anemia differs from person to person, the only acceptable treatment is a blood and marrow stem cell transfusion.

Pernicious Anemia- This condition is when the body doesn't have or produce enough healthy red blood cells.

Treatments- The treatment for this is to get a vitamin B12 shot every month. Some patients may even need to include vitamin B12 supplements into their diet and daily lives.

Process of donating blood- You must wait at least 56 days before donating blood again. Its is used for people in need. Such as car accident victims.

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White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)

Characteristics- white blood cells are our cells of the immune system. They are much bigger than the red blood cells.

Function and Homeostasis- The white blood cells are the warriors of the blood, they fight away all foreign materials such as illnesses and infections. This helps our body stay at a constant and optimal state.

Five types

Granulocytes- short lived

-granules in cytoplasm give color to cell

-3 types

Neutrophils-most common (60%)

- Segmented nucleus (3 lobe minimum)

- Seen in acute bacterial infections

- Highly phagocytic

-light purple on a slide

Eosnophils- larger than a neutrophil

- stains red/orange

-bilobed nucleus

- rare (2%)

- fights parasidic worms and breaks down anti body complex

Basophils- Rarest of all (.0004%)

- bilobed nucleus

-stains dark purple

-Involved in inflammation

- contains heparin


Agranulocytes- Long lived

- seen in chronic infections

Lymphocytes- 2nd most common (31%)

- round nucleus with little cytoplasm

- long life, produce immunity

- non-phagocytic, fights viruses

Menocytes- Called macrophages in the system

- largest of all the White Blood Cells

- Kidney shaped nucleus

- Highly phagocytic

- seen in chronic infections


Conditions-

Leukopenia- this condition is a decrease of the number of white blood cells in the blood leaving the person affected with higher risk of infection

Treatments- You can use steroids to stimulate your bone marrow to produce more white blood cells

Leukemia- is the cancer of the body's blood forming tissue, such ass the lymphatic system and the bone marrow.

Treatments- You can use chemotherapy to help treat leukemia

Mononucleosis- Also known as the kissing disease, it is a very contagious virus that is transported through saliva.

Treatments- there really is no specific therapy for this condition. You just have to wait it out.

Multiple Myeloma- Is a cancer that produces the plasma cell that crowds the white blood cells to decrease the number of healthy white blood cells produced.

Treatment- this condition is treated with chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, stem cell transplant and biologic therapy.

Platelets (thrombocytes)

Characteristics- Platelets are fragments of cytoplasm with no nucleus that help with blood clotting so we can stop bleeding.

Function and Homeostasis- The platelets help us blood clot so when we get injured or cut we don't bleed out and die.

Hemostasis- This is the word we use to describe "stop bleeding." There are three steps to this process.

1. The vascular spasm- This constricts the blood vessel making it a smaller area for it to plug.

2. Platelet plug formation- The platelets start to adhere to the walls to begin the formation of the platelet plug.

3. Blood coagulation- Finishes off the clotting of the platelets.

Hemophilia- This is a rare disorder that doesn't allow your blood to clot like a normal persons without this condition.

Treatment- The treatment for this disorder is called replacement therapy. Injections are injected into the blood to help replace the items in blood that are low or missing.

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