LEP PROJECT

BY SATHVIKA PALLELA; PERIOD 2

My project














The Tell Tale heart:


Villains: the author

Heroes: the three men


Foreshadowing: When the writer gives an advance hint in what later comes in the story

Example: In the beginning, the author hints that a murder is about to happen.

How it’s important: this gives the reader a background understanding to infer more later in the story.


Style: It’s the way an author intends to write using narrative or argumentative, persuasive, descriptive and narrative style.

Example: This was a narrative style.

How it’s important: The author was telling us a story about what had happened in his life.


Plot: The sequence of events that make up a story. The basic foundation of a story or novel.

Example: The author starts out telling us that the story we are about to read has already happened. Then he starts to tell the story in where he is going to kill a man and hints that it's because of his eye. He completes his mission and kills the man and puts his body under the wooden planks of the house. Then three men come in since they heard a suspicious noise and found the old man missing. The killer showed the three men around the house showing no evidence that he was the killer. Later he seems to struggle over what the men seem to already know would have happened. This reaches to the climax of story where the killer realizes the men knew that the author was the killer. Then he tell the three men where the body is.

How it’s important: This story ends with the climax. That makes it a little more interesting and leaves us with some unknown facts and suspicion. I think that this story should be read in one sitting.


Point of View: The way of how one person considers either with first, second, third limited, or third omnemist eperson.

Example: 1st person. The author writes the story as if they are directly talking to us. It also includes the author's thoughts and what he and only him knows.

How it’s important: We wouldn't have known why the author was going to the plot. Sure we don't know why he's going to kill the man but there are a few hints about him feeling uncomfortable with the old man's eye.


Epiphany: When something in the story is suddenly understood. Like an "aha!" moment.

Example: "anything is better than this agony." The author realizes at the end of the story that the three men had put him into a trap wickedly. He screams for them to know the truth.

How it’s important: The reader needs to know how agonized the author was after finding the sudden truth. He thinks "I must scream or die" because the three men were making a mockery of his horror. So he spilled the news which he never thought would have happened.


Flashback: What happened earlier in an event

Example: Most of the story was a flashback. The author had told us that the story he was about to tell us already happened. At the end he told us why he did it that way. So the process of murdering the man was the flashback.

How it’s important: We can tell that the author is telling us a story. So he already knows what has happened because it happened before he told us.


Direct: When the author tells you how a character acts, feels, thinks, hobbies

Example: "They heard! --they suspected! --they knew! --they were making a mockery of my horror!-this I thought, and this I think. But anything was better than this agony! Anything was more tolerable than this derision! I could bear those hypocritical smiles no longer! I felt that I must scream or die!"

How it’s important: The reader is directly told that the author is feeling agonized. Then the author tells us how he is going to act because this had happened. A great tension is building up while reading this.


Dynamic Character: When the character who changes actions and beliefs throughout the story.

Example: The author of this story. Otherwise known as the killer. '"Villains!" I shrieked, "dissemble no more! I admit the deed! --tear up the planks! here, here! --It is the beating of his hideous heart!'"

How it’s important: At the beginning of his quest, he felt smart and wicked. Throughout him killing the man and barrying his body under the planks also showed how smart and wicked he felt. When he showed the three men around the house showing all evidence is clear, he was overconfident. But towards the end, he undergoes changes in his body (hears a unpleasant noise) and realizes that the three men had new the killer was guilty all along and that had made the author fail. So it came from a smart and wicked feeling, to a overconfident feeling, to a failure or self humiliation feeling or a pity feeling.


Personification: When an inanimate object or animal is given human qualities.

Example: "It is impossible to say how first the idea entered my brain; but once conceived, it haunted me day and night."

How it’s important: The idea she had haunted her day and night. The idea cannot haunt someone, only an animate object can. So an inanimate object is given human qualities.


Suspense: A part of the story where a reader because tense and is uncertain of what’s going to happen next

Example: The old man's was frightened when he heard a sound and felt like he was in mortal terror.

How it’s important: the reader builds up suspicion because they are eager to know what the author will do since he has this obstacle in his

path.




Imagery: When something is being described with the 5 senses.

Example:"No doubt I now grew very pale; --but I talked more fluently, and with a heightened voice. Yet the sound increased --and what could I do? It was a low, dull, quick sound --much such a sound as a watch makes when enveloped in cotton."

How it’s important:


Idiom: an expression that is not taken literally and implies a figurative sense.

Example:

How it’s important:


Simile: A comparison between things using "like" and "as"

Example:

How it's important:


Mood: A feeling that come from a reader reading a passage.

Example: There starts to be huge hints given that the author is a killer. The quest to killing the old man. The author showing around the three men and the outcome of that. The author slowly starts to feel uncomfortable and finds out the truth about what the three men were here for.

How it's important: The quest to killing the old man personally gave me a sorrow feeling for the man and my tension was slowly rising. After the three men came, I felt relieved thinking they were there to suspect on the author. The ending felt energetic and that "yes!" feeling because I knew enough about the author to feel good that he had failed. The three men's idea was pretty evil at first, so different readers good have felt that the three man were wrongful of their mockery.










Shame:


Hero: Helene, Richard

Villain: Teacher, Richard (he discouraged himself at the most, really)


Tone: The writer's attitude or feeling towards a person, thing, or situation

Example: Richard's feeling towards his fate was very discouraging. Although he had tried to shift it to a positive OMG IM DUN

How it’s important:


Repetition: A device in which words, sounds, and/or ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and to create emphasis

Example: Richard states that many of the things he had done was for Helene: "When I played the drums in high school, it was for Helene, and when I broke track records in college, it was for Helene, and when I started standing behind microphones and heard applause, I wished Helene could hear it too."

How it’s important: Richard repeatedly stating "it was for Helene" let's us know that he is widely aware of her existence and she is a valuable part of his life. He cares about Helene a lot considering she was the topic for about one third of the story.


Plot: The sequence of events that make up a story. The basic foundation of a story or novel.

Example: There were two climaxes is this story. One climax was when the teacher had ashamed Richard in front of the class by saying she [we] had already known that he didn't have a daddy. The other climax was when he offered to pay the money of a wino who hasn't payed for his food at the restaurant.

How it’s important: This climaxes both show a time where Richard had tried to shift something to a positive and failed.


Point of view: The perspective from which a story is told

Example: The writer uses the word "I", "my" and "me" in the story which means that this story is 1st person point of view.

How it’s important: This let's us get direct information from the feelings and thoughts Richard is having. We learn more about Richard the we would if someone else had been telling the story.


Mood: A feeling that come from a reader reading a passage.

Example: The mood that had stayed with most people through the story was the mood of sorrow.

How it’s important: I'm sure this is what the writer wanted. Richard was a hopeless boy in the story. Nothing he did really ended up positive, thus we felt sorrow.


Setting: The background against which action takes place

Example: The setting of the story seemed happen before the 21st century. When a dollar had meant large earnings to someone. But the climax had taken place in a restaurant and the classroom.

How it’s important: The story wouldn't have been the same if the cost of money wasn't scarce and Richard's setting wasn't a high level of poverty.


Direct: When the author tells you how a character acts, feels, thinks, hobbies

Example: Since this is first person, Richard can easily say what his thoughts and feelings are. "I never learned hate at home, or shame. I had to go to school for that. I was about seven years old when I got my first big lesson. I was in love with a little girl named Helene Tucker..."

How it’s important: The writer tells us this story lime Richard is talking to us (or himself) in a way. Without this, we couldn't have known how he had personally felt about the situations in his life.


Metaphor: A comparison of two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing

Example: "I was pregnant with poverty. Pregnant with dirt and pregnant with smells that made people turn away. Pregnant with cold and pregnant with shoes that were never bought for me. Pregnant with five other people in my bed and no daddy in the next room, and pregnant with hunger."

How it’s important: Pregnancy is something one is stuck with. Richard is saying that he is stuck with poverty, dirt, etc. He actually was talking about foods in his school cafeteria and went in the flow of saying pregnant people have strange tastes. Then he had started making these metaphors. But he is not actually pregnant.


Round Character: A character described with a lot of detail, “well-rounded”

Example: Richard had described himself to us a lot, including the small details: "The teacher thought I was stupid. Couldn't spell, couldn't read, couldn't do arithmetic. Just stupid. Teachers were never interested in finding out that you couldn't concentrate because you were so hungry, because you hadn't had any breakfast."

How it’s important: I think the writer had done this on purpose. He wants us to know enough about Richard fake us to get a sorrow feeling. Enough for us to take him as a real person. For me, I almost was at the point where I wanted to be with Richard and help him, be there for him like a meaningful friend.


Character vs. Fate: When a character has a problem with something he can’t do anything about, such as luck, God, death, etc.

Example: Richard is a poor boy who doesn't have a father. He had to wear the same clothes everyday because that's all the clothes he owned. He can't control this because he has no dad and he started off with low poverty. He shames himself in school.

How it’s important: Richard still tries to survive the best he can despite poverty levels. He washes his clothes everyday, makes money out of selling newspapers and shining shoes and finds the best source of food he can from others. Sure he feels shameful about it but he is fighting over his fate.


Theme: the moral or reason of the story.

Example:

How it’s important:


Connotation: The emotions or associations a word normally arouses in people who use, hear, or read the word. Can have a positive or negative meaning.

Example: Most of this story was negative.

Positive

- Helene (not a word, but she had made Richard happy)

-(Richard had been trying to make something positive, like paying for the wino or telling the teacher he'll pay 15 dollars."

Negative

-shame

-pregnant

-couldn't

-sorry

How it's important: The positive connotation is Richard trying to change the negativity. He already realizes the shame and tries to change it up and fails. The rest of the negative words describe something he cannot control. Because of poverty and not having a father.


Motivation: A reason that explains a character’s thoughts, feelings, actions, or behavior

Example: In this case, the motivation is negative. The teacher says, "We know you don't have a daddy." This caused a downfall in Richard's attitude.

How it's important: This gives a huge discouragement and downfall to Richard. In the later paragraph, he starts remembering his shameful life. This could have happened only if the teacher had gotten bitter towards him.


Motif: A recurrent element in a literary work; a pattern or strand of imagery or symbolism in a work of literature

Example: Ricard says again and again that there is shame in the events that happened to him: "Now there was shame everywhere. There was shame in going to the Worthy Boys Annual Christmas Dinner for you and your kind, because everybody knew what a worthy boy was. There was shame in wearing the brown and orange and white plaid mackinaw' the welfare gave to three thousand boys. There was shame in running over to Mister Ben's at the end of the day and asking for his rotten peaches, there was shame in asking Mrs. Simmons for a spoonful of sugar, there was shame in running out to meet the relief truck."

How it's important: Richard states again and again that there was shame in the events that happen to him. We can tell that he is feeling overwhelmed and sorry for himself. And this also helps us round to what poverty experiences one can have. But to the story, this is the point where he realizes that his whole life is shameful because of the comparison between everyone else and him, who is poor.


Symbol: The use of any object, person, place, or action that both has a meaning in itself and that stands for something larger than itself, such as a quality, attitude, belief, or value

Example: Richard gives a value to Helene. He was in love with everything about her and thought about her much of the time.

How it's important: Helene had lead Richard to doing many of the things he had done (or accomplished). He had said he played the drums for her in high school and etc. At least part of his happiness came from Helene's existence.


The Dinner Party:


Protagonist: The hostess, The American

Antagonist: The colonel (not a bad person, just had an argument that was opposed)


Imagery: When something is being described with the 5 senses.

Example: "army officers and government attachés and their wives, and a visiting American naturalist—in their spacious dining room, which has a bare marble floor, open rafters and wide glass doors opening onto a veranda."

How it’s important: It seems like the people here are rich so this gives us a little bit of background information. And this also gives us an image in what the setting looks like.

If you were an Indian, you would know what it would look like if you watched Bollywood movies. Because most Bollywood movies would have a dinner party scene.


Mood: A feeling that come from a reader reading a passage.

Imagery: When something is being described with the 5 senses.

Example: Something that has to do with the cobra can get the reader quickly tensioned. But the end got everyone, we thought that the only hero was the American. But the hostess had also helped because she kept as the snake crawled on her foot.

How it’s important: The end was a big aha moment for everyone. The colonel was proven wrong, but most people at first agreed with her because we knew women had more power than men. But the ending left us with a sulfide because we did not expect the colonel to be wrong.


Theme: A central message or insight into life revealed through the literary work; a lesson about life or people

Example: One might not want to make an assumption

How it’s important: The colonel had made a false assumption about women only to scream for help. At the end, her point was proven wrong because the hostess had done something about the snake. Another could be, Woman can react bravely during a crisis


Point of view: The perspective from which a story is told

Example: This is 3rd person limited point of view. Because it has individual person's feelings. It's like an invisible narrator telling the story.

How it’s important: This point of view is more indirect, but we can infer in what more than one person is thinking. Feelings and thoughts of an individual person is not needed to say the purpose of this story.


Setting: The background against which action takes place

Example: The setting of the story takes place in India at a dinner party. I've watched many Indian fictional based stories and there are usual a few rich Americans and some Indian women who protest mildly.

How it’s important: The setting of the story and the background information helps us conclude that the most of the people are rich. In India, rich people have more control over things so the American could have another reason for having much control. Otherwise, it's just when the story has taken place. (I'm guessing Mumbai)


Author's Purpose: The purpose the author has written from

Example: The author starts of simple by just telling the problem he wants us to know. The colonel says it. But then he uses a skit as an example. Proven in a more formal example.

How it’s important: Not like a usual story, the author wants us to find the true meaning for ourselves. The author foreshadows, helps us infer for ourselves. The author is trying to inform to us.


Suspense: The quality of a literary work that makes the reader uncertain or tense about the outcome of events

Example: This makes both the reader and the American suspicious about the hostess and the native boy. "As he looks, he sees a strange expression come over the face of the hostess. She is staring straight ahead, her muscles contracting slightly. With a slight gesture she summons the native boy standing behind her chair and whispers to him. The boy’s eyes widen: he quickly leaves the room."

How it’s important: The man finds out after the actions of the hostess and the native boy that there is a snake in the room. So he his suspension rises as the strange expression comes over the face of the hostess and then this was a foreshadow that was helping him realize there was a snake in the he room.


Indirect: We learn about a character through his actions, thoughts, what he says, what others say or think about him

Example: When the colonel argues about men having more control than woman. When the American observes the actions of the hostess and the native boy and when he takes control.

How it’s important: This story was a third person point of view so there is no individual telling us many of the feelings or thoughts they could be having. So we infer that the young girl colonel is someone who is trying to break the men women stereotype and the American is doing exactly a men with control and wits would do.


Character vs. Nature: When a character has a problem with a force of nature such as cold, storms, earthquakes, etc.

Example: Characters are trying to get the cobra away from the guests before it startles everyone and strikes.

How it’s important: A cobra which is a force of nature is troubling the characters. This is important because if the cobra wasn't there, the colonel wouldn't have been proven wrong.


Foreshadowing: The use in a literary work of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur

Example: The bowl of milk foreshadowed a snake. This is what we knew from what the American has thought. The hostess's muscle tensing later told us that there was a snake on her foot.

How it’s important: The American has used some of the clues (that were foreshadowed) to find out that the snake was in the room. This foreshadowing situations had also left the reader tense because a snake is lethal and we wanted to know how the American would solve this mystery.


Epiphany: An event in which the essential nature of something – a person, a situation, an object – is suddenly understood in a new way; a sudden realization; an “aha!” moment

Example: The epiphany is actually the reader's reaction in the story. It happens when the man questions the woman.

How it’s important: This refers back to when the colonel had told about how man always had more control than woman. "'a woman's unfailing reaction to any crisis,'" and the men with the control had question the woman in what seemed to him a "failure". The "aha" moment happened in the part where he questioned the woman and I think it means that men always have control over woman and always question to women. Based on the observations I've already seen in real life this is what I think.


Character vs. Self:

Example: The hostess is trying to overcome herself for a cobra that is crawling on her foot. She stays calm and brave and takes action to stop it.

How it’s important: This proved in the story that woman can be calm and brave people in a crisis. And it proved the colonel wrong about women wrong about not having as much bravery as men and screaming in fear of things.


Plot: The sequence of events that make up a story. The basic foundation of a story or novel.

Example: The climax of this story has happened when the American had already found out about that there was a snake in the room and had controlled the people by telling them to not move.

How it’s important: This explained what the colonel had said about men control. And the climax moment for the reader was when he questioned the hostess (woman). Again proving the colonel right.


Direct: When the author tells you how a character acts, feels, thinks, hobbies

Example: Although most of the story was indirect characterization. There was also direct characterization when the American was observing the native boy and the hostess and planning out how to control the dinner table so they will be safe from the cobra: "His first impulse is to jump back and warn the others, but he knows the commotion would frighten the cobra into striking."

How it’s important: The narrator could have never known what the American was thinking because this was 3rd person. But he did so that's what makes this direct. This tells the reader the way the American was thinking to control the group of people.


Irony: A contrast between appearance and reality – usually one in which reality is the opposite of what it seems; when one thing is expected to happen or be, and the exact opposite occurs

Example: The irony I'm going to compare with the title of the story and the actual story. The story already starts of with a colonel arguing over something. Then a cobra is in the room and the he colonel is proven correct. This doesn't seem like a party.

How it's important: This is irony because the opposite of the title had happened in the story. This seems more like a clash in the party and the author would have chosen a better title. So I feel like the author has done this on purpose. To give us neutral feeling to start out with rather than if it said "the cobra". Then we would know something negative is going to happen in the story before we even read the story.






Charles:

Antagonist: "Charles" or Laurie, The parents ->not being responsible enough to realize that Laurie is very naught

Protagonist: Teacher, Parents ->still want to help Charles


Irony: A contrast between appearance and reality – usually one in which reality is the opposite of what it seems; when one thing is expected to happen or be, and the exact opposite occurs

Example: Laurie said that Charles was a real person at his school and he talked about what Charles had did everyday as if he was a real person.

The irony was that Laurie's mother thought Charles was real and he wasn't.

How it's important: Charles was a fictional replica of Laurie who had lied to his parents saying Charles did all the thing he didn't. The irony was that Laurie's mother thought Charles was real and he wasn't.


Repetition: A device in which words, sounds, and/or ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and to create emphasis

Example: Everyday Laurie came home repeating the news of Charles doing something wrong again

How it's important: This is irony. Because Charles doesn't exist and Laurie did these things (from the apparent ending).


Point of view: The perspective from which a story is told

Example: This point of view is from Laurie's mother. Considering she said "my husband" and "my son".

How it's important: The foolishness in the mother and dad after countless clues that Laurie is Charles got the reader into thinking about the consequences. If you just find out at the end, you would learn that Laurie's mom did not do the right parenting considering she had done nothingness about Laurie acting naughty in every possible way. So her point of view leads us to the theme.


Character vs. Self: When a character must make a decision about a problem or struggle he is having within himself

Example: Laurie is facing a situation where he is having trouble identifying himself. It may seem like Laurie just needs to know how to tell his parents about his bad behavior, which is true. But he is also having trouble identifying himself.

How it's important: Remember when he started off wearing nice blue jeans and suddenly changed to a swagger outfit and stopped waving to his mom. I think he is having trouble possessing his identity. Also, Charles is a more feminine name them Laurie, I think it has to do with that too


Character motivation: A reason that explains a character’s thoughts, feelings, actions, or behavior

Example: An unusual motivation for Laurie to put the Charles name is maybe because the name Charles is masculine and his name is more feminine. That's what I noticed.

How it's important: Laurie is more of a girls name. But Charles seems our masculine and I think Laurie wants act like a complete boy. Not that he isn't one, he is just having trouble finding his identity. Because before going to school, he was not a naughty kid, I think the kids had something to do with this as well.


Theme:

A central message or insight into life revealed through the literary work; a lesson about life or people

Example: Too much affection for your child can lead to too much trust for your child.

How it's important: The parenting in this story was very wrong. The father did not do anything after Laurie had offended him with a mean pun. They were made out as fools when they couldn't get a hint that Laurie was almost as bad as Charles. And there were many hints saying Laurie was Charles, yet the parents still couldn't get a clue. I think they were trusting their son too much and making a fool out of themselves for what a naughty kindergartener had done.


Dynamic Character: A character that undergoes a change in actions or beliefs during the course of a story

Example: Laurie had "announced" that he he was going wear blue jeans or something like that instead of the innocent clothes he had worn before. So he had changed at the very beginning of the story.

How it's important: I think that this led to the mother thinking that there was someone in school who had influenced this. She was probably true because something happened that day, but it wasn't Charles who did it.


Allusion: A reference to a literary, mythological, or historical person, place, or thing

Example: Charles is the fictional allusion to this story. "Charles" was as naughty as Laurie.

How it's important: Laurie had been doing things badly and saying a boy named Charles had done it to his parents. At the end of the story, Charles is brought back again in our heads. Charles the fictional character compared to Laurie was very much alike so it made sense that "Charles" was Laurie.


Foreshadowing: The use in a literary work of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur

Example: Laurie, just like Charles, was talking fresh, not communicating well, improper grammar and doing just about everything a naughty boy would do. So every time Charles said a word, he was basically foreshadowing or giving clues that he was "Charles".

How it's important: Even with the easily to figure out clues, the parents still couldn't figure out that Laurie was "Charles" and they had made a fool of themselves. They went as far as Charles becoming a bad influence.


Symbol: The use of any object, person, place, or action that both has a meaning in itself and that stands for something larger than itself, such as a quality, attitude, belief, or value

Example: the fictional character Charles

How it's important: Not only is Charles just a symbol of Laurie's naughty aspect, but it also shows that Laurie is struggling with his identity. It's hard for him to know yet (not a surprise he's only a kindergartner) and makes up Charles. I feel like the way this can be fixed revolves around the parents. But I feel like it was something that happened at school.


Direct: The author tells you how a character acts, looks, thinks, about family, friends, hobbies, etc.

Example: Laurie had been well-rounded throughout the story. Although the mother couldn't as well, we heard the pure naughtiness and bad grammar Laurie had.

How it's important: We need to know more about Laurie to makes indirect conclusion at the end. They do not say what happened after the mom finds out there is no Charles so both we and she need information to know that Laurie is indeed the fictional Charles.


Indirect: We learn about a character through his actions, thoughts, what he says, what others say or think about him

Example: Nowhere in the story has it ever said that Laurie was Charles. We had to make the conclusion by ourselves thankfully because Laurie was a round character.

How it's important: This helped us learn our lesson from the story. I know it's hard to tell your parents about something bad that's happened, but it's even worse to lie and make them into a fool. I think this taught me personally an important lesson.


Tone: The writer’s attitude or feeling toward a person, a thing, a place, an event, or a situation

Example: The tone of Laurie's mother throughout the story seems to be as if she doesn't think anything terrible is happening with Laurie and sort of taking it as a "oh look more Charles news!" type of thing.

How it's important: The mother's attitude was definitely concerned about the boy, but not concerned to enough when dealing with such a naughty boy who offends his father with a silly pun. Right in front of the mother who still can't gather up the evidence quick enough!


Mood: The feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage

Example: The mood created after reading this story for me was frustrating. I didn't like the choices the parents made.

How it's important: I got frustrated with how irresponsible the parents could be after there is so much evidence is given that Laurie is "Charles" and I bet most people already new it as they were in the middle. It also got me upset because I really wanted to hear about the reaction in the mother.


Round character: A character described with a lot of detail – well-rounded

Example: Laurie. Although his personality may seem a mystery.

How it's important: Although his personality may seem a mystery, he has been described with a title of a naughty boy.



The Sniper:


Protagonist: The Sniper (he was not the antagonist for killing his brother, he was trying to protect his fate)

Antagonist: His brother (he was fighting his brother which in the sniper's perspective is antagonist)


Imagery:

Example: "moon that shone through fleecy clouds, casting a pale light as of approaching dawn over the streets and the dark waters of the Liffey. Around the beleaguered Four Courts the heavy guns roared. Here and there through the city, machine guns and rifles broke the silence of the night"

How it's important: Sets the scene of the story. Says that a war is happening in the first paragraph of the story.


Character vs. Fate: When a character has a problem with something he can’t do anything about, such as luck, God, death, etc.

Example:

How it's important:


Character vs. Character: When a character has a problem with another character

Example:

How it's important:


Character vs. Self: When a character must make a decision about a problem or struggle he is having within himself

Example: Then he lay still against the parapet, and, closing his eyes, he made an effort of will to overcome the pain.

How it's important: This shows the character fighting over himself of what he wants


Main idea: The main topic the whole story revolves around

Example: Republicans and Free Staters were waging civil war and a sniper is trying to protect himself.

How it's important: The story's plot is based off of the topic or main idea of this story. It gives the reader a basis of knowledge to read off of.


Theme: A central message or insight into life revealed through the literary work; a lesson about life or people

Example: You could never know who you are hurting

How it's important: The man had killed another man who he finds out to be his brother. It also the message given from the story.


Dynamic character (characterization): A character that undergoes a change in actions or beliefs during the course of a story

Example: He becomes wounded. Bares with the pain and heals the wound. Starts fighting with someone and kills them. Finds out he killed his brother and learns his lesson.

How it's important: At the end of the story, he realizes his mistakes and this leads to the themes of the story.


Diction: Word choice. An author often chooses a work because it suggests a connotative meaning that comes from its use in various social contexts

Examples: The author had chosen more cautious words and explained what he was doing. It was more of a serious tone.

How it's important: This gives the story an author's tone and style.