By: Jasmine Yap
Bacteria used in the Fermentation Process
Streptococci start the process, producing acid. As the pH falls, types of Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus grow, making more acid.
Ingredients and directions
- Prepare the cucumbers: Wash and dry the cucumbers. Trim away the blossom end of the cucumber, which contains enzymes that can lead to limp pickles. Leave the pickles whole, cut them into spears, or slice them into coins, as preferred.
- Add the spices to the jars: Divide the garlic, dill seed, and red pepper flakes (if using) between the pint jars: 2 smashed cloves, 1 teaspoon dill seed, and 1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes per jar.
- Pack the pickles into the jars: Pack the pickles into the jars. Trim the ends if they stand more than 1/2 inch below the top of the jar. Pack them in as tightly as you can without smashing the cucumbers.
- Bring the pickling brine to a boil: Combine the vinegar, water, and salt in a small sauce pan over high heat. Bring to a rolling boil. Pour the brine over the pickles, filling each jar to within 1/2-inch of the top. You might not use all the brine.
- Remove air bubbles: Gently tap the jars against the counter a few times to remove all the air bubbles. Top off with more pickling brine if necessary.
- Tighten the lids: Place the lids over the jars and screw on the rings until tight.
- Optional — Process the pickles for longer storage: For longer storage, place the jars in a boiling pot of water. When the water comes back to a boil, set the timer for 5 minutes and remove the jars immediately. Make sure the lids pop down; if they do not, refrigerate those pickles and eat them first.
- Cool and refrigerate: Let the jars cool to room temperature. If you processed the jars, they can be stored on the shelf. If unprocessed, store the pickles in the fridge. The pickles will improve with flavor as they age — try to wait at least 48 hours before cracking them open.
- Storing canned pickles: Canned pickles will keep for at least a year on the shelf and for several weeks in the refrigerator once opened; refrigerator pickles will keep for several weeks.
Factors that influence the development of fermentation
Acid fermentation relies on beneficial cultures similar to those used to make yogurt or sourdough bread - to break down natural sugars in the vegetables and produce a variety of healthful substances, primarily lactic acid.
Chemical changes that take place
Pickling is a preserving process that can be applied to vegetables, meat, fish, eggs, fruit and even nuts. It also adds flavour to the item being preserved, and can transform one food item, such as cucumbers, into another, such as pickles. http://www.cooksinfo.com/pickling
Effect of fermentation on the pH of the food product
Ph level of a dill pickle lowers. 5.10-5.40