Traumatic Brain Injury
By: Mary Kate Biser
Physical deficits after severe traumatic brain injury include:
Paralysis in both the arms and legs
Paralysis on one side of the body
Impaired fine motor skills, sometimes with tremors
Poor body coordination
Motor speech disorders and difficulties in oral speech planning
Cognitive deficits after severe traumatic brain injury include:
Impaired attention and concentration
Memory impairment for learning and recall of new information
Impaired problem-solving and decision- making skills
Slowed information processing speed
Impulsive thinking without regard for consequences
Poor organization, planning, and sequencing abilities
Impaired concept formation and abstract thinking
Inability to engage in purposeful activity (physical activity)
Inability to respond appropriately to environmental cues
Socially inappropriate behavior
Lack of social skills
Lack of insight into behavior and its consequences
(Severe TBI Symptoms)
52,000 result in death
275,000 cause hospitalization
1.4 million require emergency room visits
From 2000 to 2010 the total incident diagnosis of TBI increased dramatically.
Causes of TBI
Characteristics which interfere with learning
- Attention and concentration
- Processing and understanding information
- Planning, organizing, and assembling
- Reasoning, problem-solving, decision-making, and judgment
- Controlling impulses and desires and being patient
(Cognitive Problems after Traumatic Brain Injury)
54-60 million cases occur worldwide each year
-TBI is the leading cause of long-term disability among children and young adults. It cost the USA alone $406 billion in 2000.
It is predicted to become the largest disease problem worldwide by 2020.
Strategies and Accommodations in the Classroom
Select a meaningful goal
use verbal phrases
Use a direct statements
Avoid time limits on testing
Give extra time
Break large activities into smaller sections
-Direct attention and encouragement
Praising or rewarding your child for doing their work.
-Self management and self monitoring strategies
The parents could set up a schedule for their child or provide them with a calender.
-Setting goals for your children.
Applications for Students with TBI
One really good one I found was the awesome memory app. This app is a card game to help improve your memory. All the cards are laid face down and the players take turns flipping the cards. The goal of the game is to reveal the matching cards.
Here is a link to the page with all the apps:
Balsiger, L. (n.d.). Traumatic Brain Injury Effects and Impacts. Retrieved April 18, 2015, from:
This web sight described what risk people with traumatic brain injuries have and in the past years how they have treated it.
Burkhardt, S., & Rotatori, A. (2011). History of Traumatic Brain Injury. In Advances in Special Education (Vol. 21). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Cognitive Problems after Traumatic Brain Injury. Received from: http://www.msktc.org/tbi/factsheets/Cognitive-Problems-After-Traumatic-Brain-Injury
This wed sight described the cognitive problems after TBI's and how the community can help.
Consortia focus on PTSD, mild traumatic brain injury. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from: http://www.army.mil/article/109961/Consortia_focus_on_PTSD__mild_traumatic_brain_injury/
Severe TBI Symptoms. Received from: