Traumatic Brain Injury

By: Mary Kate Biser

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Traumatic Brain Injury Definition

TBI is a dramatic impact to the brain which is caused by an external force that may produce an altered state of mind. It results in damage of cognitive abilities or physical functioning, which can impact someones ability to learn.


Physical deficits after severe traumatic brain injury include:

Paralysis in both the arms and legs

Paralysis on one side of the body

Impaired fine motor skills, sometimes with tremors

Poor body coordination

Double vision

Motor speech disorders and difficulties in oral speech planning

Cognitive deficits after severe traumatic brain injury include:

Impaired attention and concentration

Memory impairment for learning and recall of new information

Impaired problem-solving and decision- making skills

Slowed information processing speed

Impulsive thinking without regard for consequences

Poor organization, planning, and sequencing abilities

Impaired concept formation and abstract thinking

Behavioral deficits

Inability to engage in purposeful activity (physical activity)

Inability to respond appropriately to environmental cues

Socially inappropriate behavior

Lack of social skills


Lack of insight into behavior and its consequences

(Severe TBI Symptoms)

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Characteristics which interfere with learning

  • Attention and concentration
  • Processing and understanding information
  • Memory
  • Communication
  • Planning, organizing, and assembling
  • Reasoning, problem-solving, decision-making, and judgment
  • Controlling impulses and desires and being patient

(Cognitive Problems after Traumatic Brain Injury)

Prevelance Rate

1.7 million cause of TBI occur in the US

54-60 million cases occur worldwide each year

-TBI is the leading cause of long-term disability among children and young adults. It cost the USA alone $406 billion in 2000.

It is predicted to become the largest disease problem worldwide by 2020.


Living with a Traumatic Brain Injury

Strategies and Accommodations in the Classroom

Home Accommodations

Support groups:

-Direct attention and encouragement

Praising or rewarding your child for doing their work.

-Self management and self monitoring strategies

The parents could set up a schedule for their child or provide them with a calender.

-Setting goals for your children.

Applications for Students with TBI

They could use a mobile app.

One really good one I found was the awesome memory app. This app is a card game to help improve your memory. All the cards are laid face down and the players take turns flipping the cards. The goal of the game is to reveal the matching cards.

Here is a link to the page with all the apps:

Works Cited

Balsiger, L. (n.d.). Traumatic Brain Injury Effects and Impacts. Retrieved April 18, 2015, from:

This web sight described what risk people with traumatic brain injuries have and in the past years how they have treated it.

Burkhardt, S., & Rotatori, A. (2011). History of Traumatic Brain Injury. In Advances in Special Education (Vol. 21). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Cognitive Problems after Traumatic Brain Injury. Received from:

This wed sight described the cognitive problems after TBI's and how the community can help.

Consortia focus on PTSD, mild traumatic brain injury. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from:

Severe TBI Symptoms. Received from: