The Middle Ages

Every fact you need to know about the Middle Ages!

Volume 1 | Issue 1 500-1500 AD

by: Bronwyn Beasley

Code of Arms

This shield includes a cross because the Roman catholic church played a huge role in the daily lives of the people from the Middle ages, a crown to represent the king who ruled from the time era, a sword to represent the knights and the many battles fought, and the rat to represent the Black Plague that killed much of the population from the middle ages.

Feudal System

Kings- The king is at the top of the chain and owns all the land. He divided up his land to the nobles because he could not control it all himself. Because of this, the nobles must pledge their loyalty and their knights to him.

Nobles- The nobles ruled parts of the kings land called fiefs. Their job was to remain loyal to the king and to have an army made of knights for him. They divide up their land to the lords (knights)

Knights (lords)- they ran the local manors that were on the nobles land. The lords owned everything that was on their land including peasants, crops, and any villages on it.

Peasants- These were the most abundant and they were at the bottom of the chain. The lords provide them with a home, protection, and their own land in exchange for labor on the lords fields. The peasants lived in villages that were in the lords land, and are given their own small piece of land that they can grow crops on, but the peasants are very heavily taxed. They were hard workers and lived short lives only to about the age of 30.

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Advanced Weaponry

The Catapult

It was used to launch heavy objects such as 200 pound stones at a fortress. These massive weapons were an invaluable siege attack weapon. Catapults date back to even the Chinese, Greeks, and romans. The medieval catapults were introduced to England in 1216 during the Siege of Dover.
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Battering Ram

The battering ram was made of big tree trunks and was used to smash down doors when sieging a territory. It has a wooden roof like covering to protect the men as they push the ram towards the doors and offered suitable protection. It also dates back to the Chinese, romans and greeks.
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Biological Warfare

The following figure is depicting the use of biological weapons. This means that they would get the bodies of animals that died of diseases, and they would catapult them over to the enemies side. This would spread the disease and kill them from the inside. This was used at the Siege of Caffa in 1346.
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Life of a Soldier


During the middle ages, the soldiers either wore chain mail or Plate armor. The chain mail was made of metal rings and was a more lightweight armor so they could move faster but it was weaker. The plate armor was less flexible but offered better protection. By the 1400’s most knights were wearing plate armor.


A sword was a knights preferred weapon and there was a single handed one, and also a two handed version. A knight might also use a Mace which was a steel headed club that was use to crush the enemies skull. A Lance is a long rod with metal tips and was so long that it as useful while riding a horse. There was also a Longbow, but that was considered a cowardly weapon. However it was very useful in attacking from a distance.

In Battle, a soldier would have their weapon, the armor they were wearing, and some would ride a horse.

Roman Catholic Church

Church Hierarchy

The highest level was the pope, he is the leader of the church. Next are the Cardinals, then below them are the Bishops and abbots. Even the Bishops had a lot of power on a local level.

Popes and Kings

Both the Pope and the King were very Powerful men, and this caused great conflict between the two. The pope was in charge of religious affairs such as teaching religion and choosing who was an enemy of the church. Because of this, he became quite famous and gained a lot of political power as well. An example of this coming into conflict is when the King believes he can choose Bishops, but the Pope also believes that he is the only one who has that power.

Churches Affiliation with Commoners

The Catholic church was a huge part of peoples lives. This is where they gained an education and preformed many ordinances such as baptism and sacrament. The people had to give 1/10 of their earnings to the church, paid penances, and the wealthier often gave land. The church basically had total control over the people. And the Peasants had to work fro free on the churches land.


This is a Public Service Announcement to all who get this local newspaper.

There is an epidemic amongst us, the Plague. And those who have not already been struck, should prepare.

If you are infected your symptoms will be as follows:

It will start with a headache. Then chills and fever, which will leave you exhausted. Possible nausea, vomiting, back pain, soreness in arms and legs, and sensitivity to light.

Within a day or two, the swelling will appear.

They are hard, painful, burning lumps on your neck, under your arms, on your inner thighs. Soon they'll turn black, split open, and began to ooze pus and blood. They may grow to the size of an orange.

Although recovery isn't unheard of, it is rare. In most cases your death will come quickly. Yet... perhaps not quickly enough. Because after the lumps appear you will start to bleed internally. There will be blood in urine, blood in stool, and blood puddling under skin, resulting in black boils and spots all over your body. Everything that comes out of your body will smell utterly revolting.

The Black Death is upon us. Beware!

Letters to the Author:


My name is Susana Darling and I am a peasant. My day is characterized by hard labor throughout each day. I live and work at the farms owned by my lord. Although he does give me my own land to grow crops, I still have to pay him to use his machines so I can mill them. I am now 16 years old and I am madly in love with one of the boys in my village, William. We plan to be married, with permission from our lord of course. I pray he says yes.