Unit 5 Heredity: Phylum genus

By: Lyrique Washington, Nkemdi Anyiam, Sebastian Arcos, GT

The role of DNA in genetic inheritence

-DNA( Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid): DNA is the genetic material that decides the traits that an organism possesses.

Composed of: Nitrogen bases, Phosphate groups, sugar( Deoxyribose)

Dominant Allele: The dominant allele is the allele that takes precedence over the other allele of that gene.

Recessive Allele: The recessive allele is the allele that is considered the weaker one, when it comes to the strengthen of alleles. in order for the recessive allele to show the child must inherit both recessives from the parents.

Genotype: the combination of the alleles

Phenotype: When the combination of the alleles is finalized what ever trait is can be viewed on the organism is the phenotype.

DNA is transferred when traits are passed down - traits are coded for the sequence of DNA, Nitrogen bases

DNA ------> mRNA ------> Proteins ------> Traits

In order for traits to be inherited or transferred from parents to offspring you must begin with DNA.

The impact of chromosomal mutations on the evolution of a species

Duplication: When a portion of a chromosome is copied and the resulting conclusion is multiple copies of the same region or location of chromosome.

Deletion: When a group of nitrogen bases are taken away from the mRNA. This deletion changes the amino acids in the chromosome.

Insertion: When extra nitrogen bases are added to the sequence of mRNA.

Inversion: When are part of a chromosome breaks off, is flipped around, and then placed back into its previous location.

Translocation: When two parts of a chromosome strain break off and switch locations entirely.

Chromosomal mutation is what causes genetic variation. The changing in the genetic code of a species means that the DNA of the species has changed ever so slightly resulting in the evolution of a species. Whether it is for good or bad, in favor of the survival of the species or against it, chromosomal mutation is what makes an organism and its population fit to it's environment.

Our scientists' research on the genotypic characteristics of Phylum genus.

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The outcomes of genetic crosses within the species

The role of meiosis in the evolution of the species

Meiosis: the process of meiosis is kind of like mitosis, but times 2. What is meant by this that instead of going through Prophase,Metaphase,Anaphase, and Telephase once; during meiosis the cell that is going through it, does the phases that were mentioned previously another time. Which gives more room for error, because it gives the cell another chance to mess up in each phase. Meiosis only takes place in gametes ( sex cells ).

It was said previously that in the meiosis processes the phases happen twice and because of this fact there are more opportunities for the cell to make a mistake. In most cases when the cell makes a "mistake" it results in the mutation in the mRNA. If this mutation happens to make it to an egg and is successful in fertilizing it, there is a chance that the offspring with have that mutation in its genes.

The results of genetic techniques to show the evolution of the species

Karyotype: It is a form of analysis that utilizes visuals such as showing the shape and number of the chromosomes.

Pedigree: A pedigree is a graph that shows how a species is related to the other organisms in its family; it is also used in order to show how a disease or a trait is passed down from generation to generation.

In the pedigree diagram it can show a scientist that is studying a species, how something that may seem out of the ordinary came to be so necessary in the life of that organism. Let us say that a ichthyologist is studying a common salmon. Hypothetically this scientist can live forever. As he begins his study he observes the fish and how it does in a fresh water pool that he filters himself. Every 200 years he makes an observation in his notebook. He notices that the size of the eyes and the gills have decreased. He also noticed that when he was looking at the karyotype there were changes in the amino acids. Which lead the scientist to the conclusion that something changed in the genetic coding of the salmon.