DNA & Genetics

All about the instructions of our body

Has inherited traits, the history of DNA, and what it is!

I am here to provide great info about the instructions of our body. This will give you the richest info and can help a lot if you want to learn about this.

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All about DNA

Here are tons of good articles for a learning experience!

What is

DNA?


DNA strands (chromosomes) are the instructions that our bodies are provided with. (DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid) It contains all the information about our personality, knowledge, and even our habits. The bottom line is, without DNA, we can’t live. We have a lot of DNA, so much that if all our DNA was put together end to end, it would reach the sun and back 100 times! What is harder to believe though, is that we NEED all that DNA.

Below is the structure of a double helix DNA strand.


DNA is found in cells that can be found in any living thing. This DNA can reproduce to supply each new cell being created. DNA is almost always found in a shape known as a double helix. In a double helix,the DNA is made up of genes. Each gene has a set of chemicals called bases. Depending on the order of these bases, the genetic code changes. There are four different colors of bases: red, yellow, green, and blue. Red always connects to blue, and the same for yellow and green.


There are 23 pairs of DNA strands in a single cell. Now, multiply that by the millions of cells you have, and that will give you a good idea of how many DNA strands you have. In order for a DNA strand to be read,it must be divided in two to make RNA. RNA is half of a double helix,and only contains one of each pair of bases. Then, chemical carriers take the bases and mix them with chemical ingredients to create the product of the instructions inside DNA. After that, the product is sent across the body of the living object to perform its task. Finally, the DNA repairs itself and prepares for the cycle all over again.


https://docs.google.com/a/student.roundrockisd.org/document/d/1VrgVnE2TtpfgYRxItO9RFvaKfNic49y0iKL_edOu2DM/edit

Inherited Genes

How do we get our genes from our parents and what chooses what traits we get from them? This is a question many people have, and one that I’m answering. When there are two genes that are the same type, yet are slightly different, we call these genes alleles. You normally get 1 allele from each parent for a certain thing, so you have a pair of alleles for each trait.There are two types of alleles, dominant and recessive. Dominant alleles are “stronger” than recessive alleles, which means as long as there is 1 or more dominant allele, you get the trait from that parent.

There are alleles for many things, from skin to the shape of your ear. There are also alleles for choosing whether you become male or female. The allele for a male is dominant, so there is a higher rate of having a male child than a female one.

Question:What would happen if someone got 2 different dominant/recessive traits(ex: 2 recessive or 2 dominant)? The answer is this. Some dominant traits are dominant over OTHER dominant traits. The same is for recessive alleles. An example would be the fact that brown alleles are dominant over the green alleles, while green alleles are dominant over blue alleles. Green alleles are dominant alleles, yet brown alleles are still more dominant over both.

We still don’t know everything about alleles and human traits. For one, why do most people start off with blue eye color from birth, yet change over time? Also, what about people who have different alleles like hazel ones and so on? Genetics has not gone too far, but scientists are always learning more about it. Overall, alleles are only the start of genetics, and later in history we will learn much more.https://docs.google.com/a/student.roundrockisd.org/document/d/1lUx_eQnu3DJ6xoKDJLkdmPfEeL-toUGvagxg082U6Rs/edit

Genetic

Diseases


Not all diseases come from germs and viruses.(^above^) There are also Genetic diseases. Genetic diseases come from faulty genes that do not work properly. Most times the faulty gene in the pair is recessive, so both parents would have to have the faulty gene for it to take effect.



There are several different genetic diseases. Among them are a few I am going to name. There is cystic fibrosis, which is a disease that makes it difficult to breath. If you have it, you will probably need a machine called a nebulizer to breath normally. Also painful is sickle-cell disorder, which changes the shape of your blood cells to be curved, or, “sickled”. This makes your blood difficult to clot, meaning a small cut can be deadly if you have this disease.



The majority of people who die due to disability and horrible tragedies dies from some sort of genetic disease. There are thousands of genetic diseases, and there could be at any moment new ones. Sometimes genetic diseases come from having too little/too many genes. These could cause deformities in the body that might affect the person’s health or appearance.

Overall, having genetic diseases are NOT fun, as they stay with you unless a genetic worker fixes the genes. It is not too common, though, so don’t be afraid that you may have one. Either way, if you had a genetic disease you would know, as you have a genetic disease either from birth or not at all. There are lots of genetic diseases, so if you want to learn more, click this link:http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_genetic_disorders&oldid=597431854


https://docs.google.com/a/student.roundrockisd.org/document/d/1cOU9LGNtVb1CA8YdRldaiUdM2sQZ8eL4d_JPCuD2O68/edit

DNA Mutation

and cloning


Can we change DNA to serve different purposes? The answer is yes. Scientists today are using this technique to, for example, make it near impossible for strawberries to freeze. This is caused by taking the genes from a fish and then inserting it to the berries. First, though, it must be separated from all the other genes and then modified to be safe for the strawberry. It is also being used to create insulin for people who have diabetes. This process is made possible by “breeding” insulin from E.coli bacteria This technique has been proved useful, but can be dangerous as well.


DNA mutation is a very delicate procedure, because horrible creatures could arise from it if done incorrectly.There is something called cross breeding in genetics. This is when you take 32 of the chromosomes from one animal and infuse it with the egg of another animal. This could be a very dangerous part of mutation if, for example, you cross- bred a shark with a rhinoceros


If, say, there was only one human on earth, and that human worked with genetics, will the human species become extinct? No. The reason is simple: Scientists found out that if done properly, you can clone living beings. This is not done often though, because cloned beings are more prone to diseases and viruses. Also, if the process is done incorrectly, the results could be disastrous. There are already some cloned sheep and pigs, but nobody has cloned a human yet. It may be dangerous, who knows?


All creatures contain cells, and so if they are in the correct circumstances, they can replicate. This is how scientists can clone humans. First, scientists take DNA from someone/thing, and divide it in half. Both parts would regrow. Next, they will get an egg cell from an animal and take its genes out, while at the same time inserting the DNA from the other being. Then the being inside the egg cell will grow to become and a perfect copy of the other person.


Mutation and cloning are two interesting parts of genetics. They show how complicated genetics really is and are two dangerous concepts to do and do correctly. All I’m saying is this: Kids,don’t try this at home. It won’t end well.


https://docs.google.com/a/student.roundrockisd.org/document/d/1pWg29_LguwIoDNnsALJpu1nlJiBQjVm_v8jgtGn7gDQ/edit

The History

Of DNA


We know a lot about DNA, but what is it’s origin? Who discovered DNA? The answers are here. The first person to notice genetic traits was named Hippocrates. He noticed that children gain different traits from each of their parents. This was during about 400 BC. People have learned lots more about DNA since then.


In 1663 Robert Hooke was the first person to actually see cells. He used a powerful early microscope to see the cells in a plant. Earlier, William Harvey guesses that all animals grew from eggs. More about plants, Gregor Mendel sees how plants inherited genes and was one of the first to do experiments with them.


It wasn’t until 1900 that Mendel’s experiments were proven correct. They were proved correct by three plant experts. One was in the Netherlands and the others were in Germany. This was over 200 years after he did the experiments! It was 2 years after that until they named genes.


Finally, when it was 1944, DNA was discovered by a scientist by the name of Oswald Avery. Eight years later, they created the first cloned animal! Near today, in 2005, scientists find that if they genetically modify certain genes, they can create, in a way, cures for diabetes and cancer!


In the beginning, there were several different thoughts about how living things got inherited traits. Now, though, the doors of perception has opened to us and we understand DNA and genetics much more. People are still learning more about DNA right now!


https://docs.google.com/a/student.roundrockisd.org/document/d/1ZIgLkS2hqHPixPdf0BTkuNk79xPBWbkcGJW2qSpHeZI/edit

Research Questions:

1.What is DNA?

2.How do we inherit genes?

3.What are some diseases DNA can give us?

4.Can we mutate and clone DNA, and what is the outcome?

5.What is the history of DNA and who discovered it?

My reasoning

DNA & GenesI chose DNA and genes as my topic. It is an interesting topic because it is the set of instructions that we run on. Many people would like to learn this,and I am one of them. Genetics are strange in the way they get passed along down,yet the parent occurs no drop in DNA.There are many strange things about DNA,and so I want to discover all the reasons for these actions.This is why I am choosing as my subject. I hope this is a good topic that could provide me with good information.

Bibliography

-1.Claybourne, Anna. Genetics. New York: Chelsea House, 2006. Print. -2.Day, Trevor. Genetics. San Diego: Blackbirch, 2004. Print. -3."DNA." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. -4."Heritablity, Human Eye Color [Athro Limited: Evolution]." Heritablity, Human Eye Color [Athro Limited: Evolution]. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. -5."human genetic disease." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web.  Mar. 2014.

Thank you for reading!!!