WORLD BIOMES 2015
GROUP D, EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Rainfall: 100+ inches yearly
The salinity of the water helps to determine whether or not an organism can withstand the conditions enough to live there.
Ocean Light Zone
Predator Loss: makes food chain imbalanced
Climate Change: heating of ocean water makes ocean more acidic which makes it harder for certain organisms to survive
Habitat Loss: organisms lose space to find shelter, etc.
Pollution: sewage, oil, plastic, etc.
Temperature: 10 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-12 to -6 degrees Celsius)
Rainfall: 6 - 10 inch with melted snowOther: soil type - Permafrost : elevation - 300 to 11,079 feet
Flora & Fauna
Flora: Caribou Moss, Arctic Moss, Diamond Leaf Willow, etc.
Caribou Moss is a type of lichen that can endure harsh freezing winters and survive in extreme conditions. Caribou moss can hibernate to conserve limited supplies of nutrients and water. In addition, the plant has tough, fibrous tissue , so that it can make food when there is limited amounts of sunlight and nutrients.
Fauna: Polar Bears, Arctic Fox, Snowy Owl, etc.
Polar bears have adapted to their environment by having long, stiff hair between the pads of their feet. This protects the bear’s feet when they are walking on the ice from getting cold. They also have a thick layer of blubber-like fat under their skin that can be up to 11 centimeters thick. This insulates heat inside of their body to keep them warm in the harsh weather conditions of the tundra. Polar bears have adapted behaviorally, also. Unlike brown or black bears, polar bears do not hibernate in the winter. Only pregnant polar bears “hibernate”.
Other Biome Characteristics
- The tundra is the coldest biome with harsh winters lasting from 6 to 10 months.
- It receives low amounts of precipitation.
- Vegetation in the tundra must adapt to the short growing season. The trees and plants that do grow in the tundra stay close to the ground.
- The tundra has little biodiversity.
Importance of Tundra to our Earth
Threats to the Tundra
- Global warming can cause the melting of the permafrost, which can change the species that can live in the tundra
- Global warming can also cause a change in the landscape
- Pollution in the air can harm animals when they breathe it. It can also be absorbed by the plants that the animals eat
- Invasive plant species can take over the native vegetation, causing a decrease in plant biodiversity
Our biome at the Asheboro Zoo
Desert Biome by: Dimitri E., Graham H., Dwight D., Ashley P.
Temperature 20-25 degrees Celsius
- Rainfall: less than 10 inches per year
- Other:most soil- aridisols
- Sahara soil- entisols
Flora & Fauna
Flora- saguaro cactus, soaptree yucca, barrel cactus, brittle bush, Chainfruit
Cholla, Creosote bush, Crimson Hedgehog Cactus
Fauna- Kangaroo rat, hummingbirds, tarantulas, lizards, scorpions, snakes
Threats to the Desert
Global warming is increasing the drought and drying what little water it has.
Increased temperatures have a more likelihood of causing wildfires and destroying plants.
Grazing animals also pose a threat to rare desert plants.
Off-road vehicles can also do damage.
- Nuclear waste has been dumped in the desert and nuclear weapons have been tested in deserts.
The Importance of the Desert
The desert is a major source of sand for the world
A lot of the worlds oil is often found underneath desert’s
- The desert has provided a natural barrier for ancient civilizations
Forest Biome by: Hunter Tufts, Cheyenne Eckard, Nicole Matamoros, Sulmy Rivas
Characteristics of the Forest Biome
Deciduous Forest - Guelder Rose: This plant is native to England and Scotland. The bark can be used as herbal medicine and the berries used as ink.
White Birch : This tree is found in the US and many other places. It is the first tree to grow in places of fire or deforestation. This makes it important in reclaiming land.
Taiga- Balsam Fir: This tree only grows in forests that have been relatively undisturbed. It is not as fire resistant as other trees and it's seeds can be destroyed by fire. It also takes 30 to 50 years for them to return after a forest fire.
Deciduous Forest - Eastern Chipmunk: These animals are found in North America. They can adapt to more suburban areas and are sometimes taken as pets.
Taiga - Bobcat: Bobcats are a main predator in the taiga. They eat mostly rodents and animal we think of as vermin. They keep the rodent population down.
Deciduous forest: Beach Tree > Wood Boring Beetle > Pleated Woodpecker
Taiga: Grass > Squirrel > Bobcat > Black Bear
Why are Forests Important?
What are Threats to the Forest?
A view from a plane overlooking a clear cutting operation in the amazon rain forest.
A non-native invasive species that chokes the plants around it. It can be found in forest of the US.
Locations Around the World
Characteristics of Grasslands
Grasslands are also known as Prairies in North America, Pampas in South America, Steppes in Asia, and Savannas in Africa. Grasslands are located between forests and deserts and are characterized as having grasses as their dominant vegetation. There are not usually any trees or large shrubs. The temperatures vary from a negative twenty degrees fahrenheit in the winter to one-hundred degrees fahrenheit in the summer. The amount of rainfall is between ten to thirty-five inches per year. Grasslands, topographically, consist of vast rolling hills or flat lands with a plentiful amount of grasses.
Flora of the Grasslands
South America -Cattails: These plants have air channels called "D-cells" in their leaves, shoots, and rhizomes, which allows for air travel from their leaves to their roots.
Asia -Chinese Lantern Plant: This plant is drought resistant and is completely adapted to life in the Asian Grasslands. The roots of these plants go deeper and deeper in search of water.
Africa -Senegal Gum Acacia: This tree can go long periods of time without rain fall. They live mostly in sandy and dry places. The tree can last a period of five months to eleven months with out rain.
Australia -Acacia: This tree has developed a poison that is pumped into the leaves to discourage animals from eating them. The production of this poison causes a chemical to be released into the air that prompts other Acacia trees to produce the same poison.
Fauna of the Grasslands
South America -Great Pampas Finch: The finch's natural habitats are subtropical/high altitude shrub land and Temperate grasslands.
Asia -Saiga Antelope: These antelopes have a mucous lined snout that helps filter out dust before inhaling during the dry summers and cold winters. They usually migrate south so they can escape the cold, but they then migrate back north for the large amounts of grass.
Australia -Macropods: These animals have large tendons in their back legs. Thee animals store elastic strain energy in the tendons in their legs, which provides most of the energy needed for each hop by the sping action of the tendons rather than muscular effort.
Africa -The African Elephant: The thickset bodies of these elephants rests on stocky legs. The large ears of these elephants enable it to lose heat. The upper lip and nose form a trunk which can act like a fifth limb, a sound amplifier, and an important method of touch.
Threats to the Grasslands
Importance of the Grasslands
-Africa- Star Grass>Antelope>Lion>Hyena>Bacteria
-North America- Turkey Feet>Grasshopper>Sparrow>Fox>Buzzard
-South America- Pampas Grass>Ants>Armadillo>Red Fox>Puma>Bacteria
-Asia- Seed>Sand Grouse>Red Fox>Jaguar>Long Legged Buzzard
-Australia- Grasses>Crickets>Frilled Lizard>Wedged-Tail Eagle>Dingo>Buzzard
-Grasslands are perfect for cropping and pasturing because its soil runs deep and is extremely fertile.
-Periodic fires, whether they are human induced or occur spontaneously, are very important to the grassland to ensure that invasive plants do not take over.
-Since grassland biomes have rich soil, much of them are used for farming. There is only 2% of the original grassland left in North America.
Some of these fires can grow at a rate of two feet per second!
A beautiful, but very harmful invasive species that is taking over the grasslands of South America.