# pitch and volume

### Jose #27

## pitch and volume

Volume or pitch is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.[1] Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container, i. e. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces.

Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. Volumes of a complicated shape can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. Where a variance in shape and volume occurs, such as those that exist between different human beings, these can be calculated using three-dimensional techniques such as the Body Volume Index. One-dimensional figures (such as lines) and two-dimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space.

The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined by fluid displacement. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. However, sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive.[2]

In differential geometry, volume is expressed by means of the volume form, and is an important global Riemannian invariant. In thermodynamics, volume is a fundamental parameter, and is a conjugate variable to pressure.

## sound waves, frequency and amplitude

- sound waves: exist as variations of pressure in a medium such as air. They are created by the vibration of an object, which causes the air surrounding it to vibrate. The vibrating air then causes the human eardrum to vibrate, which the brain interprets as sound. fequency : Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency amplitude : amplitude, intensity and loudness. Here the signal has a frequency of 440 Hz throughout, but the amplitude increases by a factor of two. Later we'll show that that is an increase in sound level of 6 dB.You will notice a modest increase in loudness. You may also notice changes (probably small) in pitch and timbre.