Organelle Structures and Functions

Plasma/Cell Membranes

Plasma/cell membranes are made of a phospholipid bilayer, a subtle barrier between two aqueous compartments. Their function is the selective transport of molecules and cell-cell recognition. Found in both plants and animals.

Cell Wall

Made of cellulose, which provides a protective framework for plants. Helps plants keep their shape. Found only in pants.

Cytoplasm

Fluid that fills up a cell; spaces in 'skeleton'

It dissolves many molecules

Found in both plant and animal cells

Nucleus

Bound by double membrane and found in the center of a cell, it contains genetic material.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Nuclear Membrane

Two layered membrane that encases the nucleus. It's function is to regulate the exchange of substances between the nucleus and cytoplasm.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Nucleolus

The most important substructure in the nucleus, it's function is to fulfil the need for large-scale productions of rRNA.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Centrioles

Nine groups of microtubules arranged in a specific way. Function is to help the cell when it comes time to divide.

Found only in animal cells.

Chromatin

Located in the nucleus; a mass of genetic material; DNA and proteins. Condenses to form chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Ribosomes

Suspended in the cytosol and bound in the endoplasmic reticulum. It's function is assembling of the proteins for a cell.

Found only in animal cells.

Golgi Apparatus

A series of membranes shaped like pancakes. It gathers simple molecules and combines them to make complete molecules.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A network of tubules and flattened sacs. Forms a continuous connection with the nuclear envelop.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Mitochondria

A rod-shaped cell enclosed in two membranes. Function is to produce energy and maintain a proper concentration of calcium ions.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Chloroplast

Surrounded by two membranes that contain and protect the inner parts of the chloroplast. Function is to convert light energy into sugars used by the cells (photosynthesis).

Found only in plant cells.

Lysosomes

Single membrane organelles hat float in cytoplasm. Digests and holds enzymes created by the cell.

Found only in animal cells.

Peroxisomes

Single membrane that contains digestive enzymes. Holds enzymes that require oxygen.

Found only in plant cells.

Vacuole

Storage bubbles founds in cells; membrane surrounds a mass of fluid. Function is to store any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive.

Found in both plant and animal cells.

Cytoskeleton

Made of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Responsible for cell shape, cell movement, and movement of organelles in a cell.

Found in both plant and animal cells.