Culture and Crisis

The Culture and History of Pakistan and the Bangladesh War.

The history and rich culture of Pakistan

Pakistan, a beautiful and exuberant country located above the Arabian Sea, in-between Afghanistan and India is the 36th largest country in the world. Back in the early medieval Pakistan was in fact the origin point of some of the earliest ancient human civilizations, one being the Soanian, dating back to (500,000 to 125,000 BP). As time went on in the medieval times (642-1219 AD) Islam began to come into the Pakistani culture. Pakistan has changed and developed as a nation but its culture and practices has remained the same throughout time. The Shalwar Kameez is the national dress of Pakistan and is worn commonly by both men and women. The Shalwar Kameez consists of two pieces of clothing, the Shalwar being pajama-like pants and the Kameez being a long shirt or tunic which is more commonly seen on women than men. Both pieces of the outfit are usually elaborately decorated and sewn together with color cloths ranging from chiffon to cotton. A women's social status changes depending on where they were raised in Pakistan. If the woman was raised in a privileged and wealthier house that held a high social class they would have much more opportunities than a woman who was raised in a middle or working class household. Although today women in Pakistan are making great strides for women to be recognized and have rights in Pakistan. Malala Yousafzai, the youngest Noble Peace Prize recipient is a activist for female education in Pakistan. Yousafzai has also written two books telling about her experiences and hardships she had to go through as a young teen. Now Pakistan has taken a leap into the modern decade and has renovated its media and entertainment. Pakistan now has a network broadcasting domestic, private 24-hour news, media and television channels. Pakistan also has its version of Hollywood, called Lollywood where popular films, television shows and dramas are filmed. Pakistan being a large country is diverse when it comes to literacy and dialect, having Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pashto, Baluchi, Persian, English and many other languages. The Pakistani cuisine on the other hand is much more different than its neighbours around it, its dishes consist of lots of meat and pork. Although Pakistan shares its love of using strong spices, herbs and seasoning in their cooking. Pakistan is a diverse and fascinating country that holds a deep, rooted history with South Asia and with the rest of the world.

The Bangladesh War (1971)

The Bangladesh War or The Bangladesh War for Independence, started on March 26, 1971. The Bangladesh War went on for 8 months, 2 weeks and 2 days, ending on December 16, 1971. The war started due to rising conflicts between Bangladesh and Pakistan and Bangladesh's desire to become its own independent country. The war began after the Pakistani military launched Operation Searchlight on March 25, 1971, which was a military operation to stop the Bengali nationalists movement. Many political and cultural conflicts arose during this time, one being Tikka Khan, who was a West Pakistani general, flew to Dhaka to become the Governor of East Bengal. But, was denied by the judges there entry. Therefore, later on the night of March 25, the Pakistani army tried to violently crush the Bengali’s opposition and the residence halls of the Dhaka University were viciously attacked. Another political event that took place during the Bangladesh war was when the Pakistani forces arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the leader of Bangladesh. The war between the Pakistani forces and the Bangladesh freedom fighters became intense. General Muhammad Osmani, the general of the Mukti Bahini force, a group of freedom fighters was aided by India who was taking in refugees and training them to become guerillas. India also helped the Bangladesh fighters by supplying them with ammo and their own soldiers against the Pakistanis. The Bengals who were against Bangladesh becoming an independent country were encouraged by the Pakistanis to stop the rebellion, making more conflict arise in Bangladesh during the war. As the monsoon season came the Bangladesh were able to critically damage the Pakistan Army due to the Pakistanis having issues when the season came. The Indian soldiers, Air Force, and Navy attacked the Pakistani army, while the Mukti Bahini and Indian forces fought the Pakistanis on ground. The Pakistanis failed to resist them and surrendered. On December 16th, 1971, Dhaka surrendered to the Mitro Bahini, the forces of the Mukti Bahini and the Indian army. An “Instrument of Surrender” was signed by the defeated Pakistani General Niazi and by the Indian commander General Aurora, liberating Bangladesh forever. Today, December 16th is recognized as the Victory Day in Bangladesh, while March 26 is recognized as the Independence Day all throughout Bangladesh.

Bibliography

  • Website Title: Wikipedia
  • Article Title: Bangladesh Liberation War
  • Publisher: Wikimedia Foundation
  • Date Accessed: September 15, 2016

  • Website Title: The Opinion Pages
  • Article Title: March 26, 1971 … and after | The Opinion Pages
  • Electronically Published: March 26, 2015
  • Date Accessed: September 15, 2016

  • Website Title: Wikipedia
  • Article Title: Pakistan
  • Publisher: Wikimedia Foundation
  • Date Accessed: September 15, 2016