World War I

Timeline

Factors of World War I:

  • Alliances
  • Militarism
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism

Nationalism & Imperialism:

Nationalism is extreme pride for one's home country. They believe in the right of self-determination and want their own country and government. Nationalism led to a crisis in Southeastern Europe in the 1800's in the Balkan Region. Also, nationalism was spreading all over in the late 1800s and 1900s. Different national groups like the South Slavs; Serbs, Bosnian, Croats, and Slovenes. They all began to press for Independence.


Imperialism is the ruling or controlling of other peoples or nations through annexation, military conquest, or economic domination. This was how European powers built empires. Serbia was formed on the belief that they were to unit all Serbs. Russia supported the Serbs, but Austria Hungary worked to limit Serbia growth.

Triple Alliance:

1882-1914: Prussia forced France to give up territory along the border of Germany. After this France and Germany became enemies. Germany signed different alliances to protect itself with Italy and with Austria-Hungary.

Franco-Russian Alliance:

This alliance took place in 1894. This was when France and Russia came together and they both promised each other to help each other in a war against the Triple Alliance.

Triple Entente Alliance:

France, Russia, and Britain formed a Triple Alliance. The British did not want to sign a formal alliance. So the relationship became known as an entente cordial. Britain, Russia, and France became known as the Triple Entente. This became known as the triple Entente in 1907.

Beginning of the War:

In the year of 1914 in June, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, went to Bonsnian which is the capital of Sarajevo, he had his wife ride with him. A Serbian nationalist group threw a bomb at him and his wife but missed. Archduke and his wife drove off but they slowed down at a curve and they were shot by another member of the Black Hand.

Central Powers:

Central Powers:

Those fighting for the Triple Entente were called allies. Italy joined in 1915 after it was promised control of Austria Hungarian territory. What was once called the Triple Alliance- Germany and Austria- Hungary joined with the Otoman Empire and Bulgaria to form what is called the Central Powers.

July 28th, February 1915, and May 7th 1915

July 28th:

Austria- Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia immediately mobilized its army, including troops stationed on the German border. Within days Germany declared war on Russia and France. World War I had begun.


February 1915:

The Germans announced that they would use U-Boats to sink without warning any ship they found in the water around Britain. This went against an international treaty that they signed by Germany that banned attacks on civilian ships without warning.


May 7th 1915:

U-Boat sank the British passenger ship Lusitania, killing over 1000 people. 128 of those people were Americans.

U.S. announces war:

Jan. 1917:

Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico promising Mexico the return of it lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, if it allied with them. British intelligence intercepted the Zimmerman telegram, and it ran in American Newspaper.


Feb. 1st 19197:

Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. They believed they could starve Britain into submission. They did not think the United States would raid an army.


Feb. 3rd & March 21st:

The U-Boats sank 6 American ships. This roused to action, President Wilson asked congress to declare war on Germany on April 2, 1917.

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Liberty Bonds and women working:

The end of the war, the U.S. has spent 32 million $, to fund the war effort, they sold Liberty bonds and victory bonds were lending money to the governemnt to be repaid with interest ina specified number of years.


women working:

- with so many men in the military, someone needs to take the positons of the men in the work forces. One million women joined the workforce. Women worked in factories, shipyards, and railroad yards. Also served as police officers, mail carriers and trained engineers.

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great migration:

Promised of high wages and plentiful work convinces. Cities such as Chicago, New York, Cleveland, and Detroit changed greatly. In Northern cities, African Americans were sojn able to vote.

Horrors of World War I:

More than 50,000 Americans died in combat, over 200,000 were wounded. Another 60,000 soldiers died from disease. Mostly died from the flu. This killed 25 to 50 million people.

Drafting:

Selective Service Act of 1917 required all me between 21 and 30 to register for the raft. A lottery randomly determined the order in which they were called before a local draft board in charge of selecting men to enter the war.

Soldiers entering the war:

when the U.S. entered the war in 1917, the army and the National Guard had more than 200,000 troops. But they still needed more.

Women entering the war:

Worl War i was the first in which women officially served in teh armed forced. Early in 1917 the navy authorized the enlistment of women to meet its clerical needs. They served in clerical duties, radio operators, electricians, and pharmacist.

new strategies and warfare:

Early offensives demonstrated that warfare had changes. Powerful artillery guns placed far behind the from lines hurled huged explosives shells onto the battlefield, to protect themselves tehy started digging trenches. They used barbed wire and a new weapon called the machine gun, to guard against the enemy.

new technology:

In 1915 the Germans first used poison gas. This caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation. Both sides developed gas masks to conquer fumes. British introduced the armored tanks, which could crush barbed wire and cross trenches but it was slow. The us of aircraft was introduced during the war. They used airplanes at first to spy on enemy troops and ships. Then they put guns on them and small bombs to drop on enemy lines.

Russia Leaves the War:

March 1917, riots broke out in Russia. Czar Nicholas II, the leader of the russian Empire, abdicated his trhone and the russina Revoltuion began. Vladimir Lenin's Boshevik party took power and established a Communist governemnt in November 1917. He agreed to teh treat of Brest-Litovsk with Germany on March 3, 1918.

Battle of the Argonne forest

With the German drive stalled, French marshal Ferdinand Foch, supreme commander of the Allied forces, ordered massive counterattacks. In mid-September American troops drove back German forces at the battle of Saint-Mihiel. On September 26, 1918, the most massive offensive for the American Expeditionary Force was launched in the region between the Meuse River and the Argonne Forest. Although the Germans inflicted heavy casualties, their positions slowly fell to the advancing American troops. By early November, the Americans had opened a hole on the eastern flank of the German lines. All across the Western Front, the Germans began to retreat.

the big 4

In Jan. 1919 delegates from 37 counties traveled to a certain place. They treat with Germany was called the treaty of versailles. The most important participants were called the Big Four: Presidnet Wilson of the U.S., British Prime Minister David Llyod George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and the Italian prime minister of Vittoria Orlando. Russian representative were not welcomed.

The war ends:

Meanwhile, a revolution had engulfed Austria-Hungary. In October 1918, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia declared independence. By early November, the governments of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire had surrendered to the Allies.

In late October, sailors in Kiel, the main base of the German fleet, mutinied. Within days, groups of workers and soldiers seized power in other German towns. The German emperor stepped down, and on November 9, Germany became a republic. Two days later, the government signed an armistice—an agreement to stop fighting. On November 11, 1918, the fighting stopped.

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14 points:

President Wilson arrived in Paris in 1919 with a peace plan known as the Fourteen Points. It was based on “the principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities.” In the first five points, Wilson proposed to eliminate the causes of the war through free trade, freedom of the seas, disarmament, an impartial adjustment of colonial claims, and open diplomacy.


The fourteenth point called for the creation of a League of Nations. The League’s members would help preserve peace by pledging to respect and protect each other’s territory and political independence. Wilson was willing to give up his other goals in exchange for support for the League.


Treaty of Versailles:

Signed by Germany on June 28, 1919, included many terms designed to punish and weaken Germany. Germany’s armed forces were greatly reduced and its troops were not allowed west of the Rhine River. The treaty also specifically blamed “the aggression of Germany” for the war. This allowed the Allies to demand that Germany pay reparations—monetary compensation for all of the war damages it had caused. A commission decided that Germany owed the Allies about $33 billion. This sum far exceeded what Germany could pay all at once and was intended to keep its economy weak for a long time.


The Treaty of Versailles ignored freedom of the seas, free trade, and Wilson’s goal of a fair settlement of colonial claims. No colonial people in Asia or Africa received independence. France and Britain took over colonial areas in Africa and the Middle East, and Japan assumed responsibility for colonies in East Asia. The treaty did, however, call for the creation of a League of Nations. League members promised to reduce armaments, to submit all disputes that endangered the peace to arbitration, and to aid any member who was threatened with aggression.

Racial Unrest:

In the summer of 1919, 25 race riots broke out across the nation. The riots began in July, when a mob of angry whites burned shops and homes in an African American neighborhood in Longview, Texas. A week later in Washington, D.C., gangs of African Americans and whites fought each other for four days before troops got the riots under control.

Strikes:

The end of 1919, more than 3,600 strikes involving more than four million workers had taken place.

Red scare:

Since the late 1800s, many Americans had accused immigrants of importing socialist and communist ideas and had blamed them for labor unrest and violence. Events in Russia seemed to justify fears of a Communist revolution. The strikes of 1919 fueled fears that Communists, or “reds,” might seize power, leading to a nationwide panic known as the Red Scare. Many people were particularly concerned about workers using strikes to start a revolution.
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