Nervous and Lymphatic Systems

By Prinon Shahed Period 2

Nervous System

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About

- System involving 5 senses
- Involved with pain receptors, helps body detect abnormalities (bruises, cuts, etc)
- Consisted mostly of nerves
- 100 billion nerve cells in brain
- The base of the spinal cord has a cluster of nerves, which are most sensitive.
a. Composed of brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organ one of the most complex, yet smallest systems in the body
b. Capable of producing electrical messages for communication within the body

1. These messages can be sent in milliseconds

c. Functions
  1. Monitors internal and external environments with receptors
  2. Interprets stimuli
  3. Responds to stimuli by sending an electrical message to another nerve, muscle, or gland
  4. Thus regulates bodily activities
  5. Special senses are taste, smell, sight, hearing and equilibrium

Nervous System Diseases

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Epilepsy

  • Also called seizure disease
  • 2 or more seizures = epilepsy
  • Seizures caused by clusters of nerve cells in the brain signal abnormally
  • There are limits on electrical nerve impulses in the body. During a seizure, these limits break down and cause the unnatural impulses
  • 4th most common neurological disease in America
  • Often caused by head injury, can be genetic
  • Epilepsy can happen in elders over the age of 60 after a stroke
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Parkinson's Disease

  • Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the nervous system that affects your movement, and is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most common movement disorder. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with tremor in the hand. But while tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson's disease, the disorder also causes stiffness or slowing of movement.
  • The disease affects several organs in the body, and many organ systems. Some (besides the nervous system) include the skeletal system, the muscular system, the digestive system, and the lymphatic system.

Multiple Sclerosis

  • Multiple sclerosis (or MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. Symptoms may be mild, such as numbness in the limbs, or severe, such as paralysis or loss of vision.
  • MS is a disease that involves an immune system attack against the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves).
  • Myelin (the fatty substance that surrounds nerve fibers in the central nervous system) is damaged, as well as the nerve fibers themselves. The damaged myelin forms scar tissue (sclerosis), which is where the disease gets its name. When any part of the myelin sheath or nerve fiber is damaged or destroyed, nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and spinal cord are distorted or interrupted, producing the variety of symptoms that can occur.

Lymphatic System

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About

Composed of Organs:


  • Spleen
  • Thymus
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Tonsils
  • Lymph
  • Lymph vessels

Functions:


  • Helps protect the body against infection
  • Collects and removes waste from cells
  • Returns to the blood supply fluid and proteins that have moved out of the blood vessels.
  • Transports lipids from the small intestine to the blood stream.
  • Houses lymphocytes that defend the body against invasion by microbes, foreign cells, toxins, and cancer cells

Lymphatic System Diseases

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AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Spread through reproductive fluids, blood, and breast milk
  • STD (sexually transmitted disease)
  • Attacks the immune system
  • Attacks Helper-T cells, important parts of the immune system
  • Disease caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
  • Transmitted through blood and reproductive fluid
  • No cure currently, always fatal. Can be delayed through treatment
  • Common in Subsaharan Africa and other poorly developed regions, but prevalent in developed countries as well


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Leukemia

  • Disease of the leukocytes (white blood cells)
  • Type of cancer
  • Common in young children
  • Genetic illness
  • Leukemia starts in the soft, inner part of the bones (bone marrow), but often moves quickly into the blood. It can then spread to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, central nervous system and other organs. Both children and adults can get leukemia, which is a complex disease with many different types and subtypes
  • There are four common types of leukemia based on how quickly the disease develops and the type of white blood cell that is affected. In acute leukemia blood cells are very abnormal, increase rapidly and worsen quickly. In chronic leukemia the abnormal blood cells can still do their work early in the disease but slowly get worse.


Lymph Nodes

  • It is estimated that there are 500-700 tiny bean shaped glands, known as lymph nodes, located throughout the body.
  • They play an intricate part in the fighting off infection and disease because it is part of the immune system. When the body is healthy the lymph will quietly move lymph throughout the body removing debris like the following:
  • Dead cells
  • Pathogens
  • Toxins
  • Cancer cells