Study Guide IPS

Chapter 1

SAFETY NOTES

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Fire Extinguisher, fire blanket, and eye wash/shower

Don't waft powders. Only gases.

Don't use chipped glass

Roll sleeves up

Don't walk away from alcohol burner.

Keep goggles on.

Hot and cold glass look the same. Avoid touching.

Notify Mr. Leeds if something bad happens.

Box Questions

1. Because a gas is released when baking soda is heated which helps dough/batter rise.(Cupcakes, cookies, etc.)

3. 50 cubic centimeters.

4. The width of A and B is different.

5. 7 cm3

6. A: 8 cubes

B: 27 cubes

7. The second box.

8. Because the width expands as the cones length rises.

1.2 Volume Notes

Lab: Reaction in a Bag

Phenol Red


Used as pH indicator -----> Ph Scale- measure acidity, goes 0-14, 0-7-14

below 7 turns yellow Acid Neutral Alkaline

above 8 turns pink

2 Solids

A


1. Calcium chloride (chlorine+calcium)

-Acid (mildy)

-Hydrotropic: attracted to water (absorbs water)

uses: canned vegetables, (keeps them from getting mushy), electrolytes in sports drink

B

Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda)

-not acidic

uses: baking, cat litter, tooth paste, laundry detergent

Lab: Heating Baking Soda

Control factor: unheated test tube


Experimental factor: heated test tube

Indicator: the tea (showed color difference)

Variable: something you want to measure

Independent Variable: causes a change in dependent - heat or flame

Dependent Variable: color of tea

Control factors: same type of tea, amount of baking soda, amount of tea, stirring the same amount of time, same size test tube.

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Lab 1.4 Sand and air space

Experimental Errors

Sand sticks to sides of wet cylinder. v. sand and water would be too low.


Pour water into sand

1.6 Mass Notes

Beqa: ancient standard mass used in Egypt


Earliest balance found in Egypt (Approximately 7000 years old)

1kg=1000 grams

1kg=2.2 pounds

1.8 The Sensitivity of a Balance

1.8 Post Lab

Before 1982: 95% copper 5%


After 1982: 2.5% copper 97.5%

1943 Made of steel and zinc. copper needed for shell casings (bullets)

A 1943 copper penny has sold for 82,500

The Sensitivity of a Balance

The lightest mass that you can expect the balance to detect. + or - the margin of error when you mass something


Chapter 2

Lab 2.1 Salt Dissolve into water

Experimental Errors

If you clean the between Mi and Mf

The outside of the bottle is wet during Mi

Not drying off the cap --> water in Mi not there for Mf.

remove cap before Mf--> spillage/ leakage

not shaking long enough ---> not dissolve

cap not on tightly ---> spillage/ leakage

spill salt when pouring into bottle

Histograms

Type of graphs (similar to bar graphs)


graphs used for: financial statistics---> sports, doctor, weather

Histogram Rule: If data falls on a line it is graphed in column to the right.

1. Find the largest and smallest number you must mass.

2. You can use two slashes to jump a bunch of intervals


2.4 Ice, Ice, Baby

Experimental Errors

Not wiping off condensation --> gain mass


Cap not sealed (hole), evaporation

Ice not fully melted

Bottle is wet during Mi --> lose Mass

Shaking bottle ---> lose Mass

2.5 The Mass of Copper and Sulfur

Experimental Errors

Sulfur sticks to sides of t. tube (doesn't react)


Hole in the rubber sheet ---> gas escapes

sheet is not on t. tube tightly ---> gas escapes

Clean pan between Mi and Mf

Melting point of Copper 1,100 C. (2,000 F)

Melting point of Sulfur 112 C. (235 F)

Yellow smoke ---> water in sulfur turns to vapor (gas) and rises in test tube

When it cooks---> when sulfur and copper bond they create copper sulfide

2.6 Lab The Mass of a Gas

Experimental Errors

Touch tablet after the Mi - decrease in mass


Cap is wet during Mi - lose mass

Water in pan during Mi - lose mass

cap not on tight enough or quick enough

Alka-Seltzer: Anticid and pain reliever: aspirin, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate

Conservation of Mass

Closed System: a space where nothing can enter or leave groups that pass no ∆M


Law of Conservation of Mass: In a closed system mass will remain constant, regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed system.


Chapter 3

Characteristic Properties

Property of an object: does not tell you what it is made out of.


Property of a substance: this helps to identify what the object is made out of.

3.2 Lab Mass and Volume

Experimental Errors

Cylinder is wet when massed - mass increase

Water splashes out of graduated cylinder - volume decrease


Mass and Volume Notes

1. All objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume will have the same mass. (regardless of their shape)

Example: long aluminum cylinder and the small aluminum cylinder


2. The mass of an object will double if it's volume doubles.

3. Objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will not have the same mass.

Example: brass and aluminum cylinders

Density

A characteristic property

is specific to liquids solids and gases

can help to identify substances


Density=mass÷velocity D = M ÷ V


3.5 The density of the solid

Question

Why do all lab groups get different density calculations for the rock?


All have different densities because the rock is formed by many substances being compressed together different substances = different densities.


Experimental errors

Measure the same side twice

water splashes out of the graduated cylinder = mass increase

find the volume of rock before mass = increase of mass

paint chips off objects = Mass decrease


M/V=D

If the mass is the same of two different objects and the density is the same of two different objects in the volume must be the same two different objects.


Lab 3.6 the density of a liquid

Point of Lab

To utilize density to compared two liquids to decide if they are the same substance


Experimental errors

Not rinsing out cylinder between substances

cylinder is not re-massed empty

outside of cylinders what



substance a: magnesium sulfate: Epsom salt

substance B: water





Lab 3.7 The Density of a Gas

Experimental errors

Make sure hand seals bottle

touch tablet = decrease in mass

forget foil = decrease in mass

Spill water when finding volume of bottle

Calculations

D=M/V

2.2 kg = 1 lb

1 kg = 1000 grams

Calculation

Volume of sand and water minus water is sand alone

Volume of dry sand minus sand alone is air space

fraction of sand that is air is air divided by sand

Unit of measurement: cm3 (cubic centimeters)


volume: L x W x H (A x B x C)

Standard unit of length= meters (m)

1 centimeter 1 cm= .01 m cent=100

unit cube

a small cube 1 cm on each side. In cubic centimeters.