The Middle Ages

By: LeeAnn Mazzei

All about The Middle Ages!

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Feudalism/ Manorialism Caste System (left) A Manor (right)

What is feudalism? Feudalism in the Middle Ages was the dominant social system, in which the nobility held lands from the crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants were obliged to live on their lord's land and give them homage, labor,and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.

What is Manorialism? A manor was a district over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges. A manor would usually include a castle, moat,water source,food source,livestock,outhouses,mill,shops,recreational areas,church,housing,crop storage,wood source,women areas,dungeon,and wagons.

Monarchs/ popes

What are monarchs? Monarchs are a hereditary sovereign, as a king or queen. They were the absolute ruler of a state or nation. They were on the very top of the caste system, below the Pope (see picture of caste system above).

Who was the Pope? The pope was over the catholic church. He was so important, that he ruled above the Monarch (see caste system above). They were chosen by God, making them very holy.

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church Had a big influence in the Middle Ages. They "controlled" who went to Heaven and who did not. They played a majorly political role. The church owned lots of land because they owned monasteries, making them economically powerful. They believed that a man named Jesus was sent from God to die on the cross to pay for people's sins.

Growth of the Cities

  • Cities grew as trade grew
  • They provided higher paying jobs
  • People left their manors to go to the cities even though they were in poverty
  • Towns were run by feudal lords originally
  • Schools started to offer education to the average and not just the rich
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Spanish Inquisition

It was started by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to purify Spain do heretics or non believers. There was a disagreement between the Christians and Muslims. So, the Christians decide to make a rule that any person against their religion shall either be killed, leave Spain, or convert to Catholic. The majority converted, but some people did not believe they were sincere about their new religion. Christians take the converters in and torture them until they confess that are a heretic. They would torture them with racks and strappadoes. Racks are these wheel-like things that they would put the converters on and stretch their limbs until they confessed or had their body ripped apart. Srtappadoes are thing they would hang the converter on from the ceiling with their hands tied behind them. This would cause their arms to be pulled out of socket. What are heretics? Heretics are people who reject any article of faith.


  • siege weapons for the Crusades
  • Nautical Inventions
  • Farming inventions
  • Printing Press
  • Clocks and timekeeping inventions
  • more advanced armor

black death

The Black Death came from Asia while they were trading. The rats on board had fleas that carried this virus. The fleas would bite people causing excessive bleeding, high fever, weakness, soreness, and red, itchy bumps, or buboes. They people infected would die in several hours to a couple days. This bubonic plague spread world wide killing Millions and millions of people. This epidemic finally calmed down many years after.

map of europe

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1095- crusades begin when armies of Christians respond to Pope Urban II's beseech to go to war against Muslim forces in the Holy Land.

1099- Invading Christians set up several Latin-Christian states

1204- relationships between the Crusaders and Christian Allies fade in the Byzantine Empire during the third Crusade

End of 13th century- rising Malmuk dynasty in Egypt provided the final reckoning for the Crusaders.


What were knights? Knights were very special warriors. They were of noble birth. Anyone though, could prove themself in battle and be "knighted". These knights had to follow a code of conduct called chivalry. They had to be courtious and generous.