The core is the innermost layer of the sun. Here, energy is produced via nuclear fusion where 2 hydrogen atoms fuse to create helium. The core is the powerhouse of the sun and is responsible for all the heat and light emitted. Temperatures average around 22.5 million degrees Fahrenheit.
In the Radiative zone, energy generated by nuclear fusion in the core moves outward as electromagnetic radiation. It extends outwards towards about 70% of the Sun's radius. The temperature in this zone lacks the heat and pressure to cause fusion.
This zone is the outermost layer of the interior of the sun. Here, energy is transported by convection. Convection is a heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of current from one region to another. The temperature is about 360,032 degrees Fahrenheit
Being that this is considered the surface of the sun, this layer is where the Sun's energy is emitted as light. It takes about 8 minutes for this light to reach our planet. The photosphere is also the source of solar flares.
This layer is where super heated hydrogen burns off, resulting in a reddish glow. The red rim can only be seen during a solar eclipse. Otherwise, the light emitted from the photosphere overpowers that of the chromosphere.
The Corona is considered the extended outer atmosphere of the sun. It consists of ionized gas, or plasma and extends millions of kilometers into space. Like the Chromosphere, it can only be seen during a solar eclipse. Temperatures here can get as high as 3.5 million degrees Fahrenheit.
Sun Spots are regions on the solar surface that appear dark because they are cooler than the rest of the photosphere.
Solar Prominences are attached to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's corona. They are typically looped or disk shaped.
Auroras are "light shows" caused by colliding electrically charged particles that enter the earth's atmosphere from the sun.
A solar flare occurs when magnetic energy from the solar atmosphere has build up and is released.