Preventing Pregnancy

Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to sexual abstinence, or abstinence from alcohol or food. The practice can arise from religious prohibitions and practical considerations.

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, are methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy. Planning, provision and use of birth control is called family planning. Birth control methods have been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods only became available in the 20th century. Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable.

Being Parents

Are you financially stable?
Who will watch your child when you're gone?
Will your child be living in a good environment?
Do you have someone to help you take care of the baby?

Pregnancy is Happening.

In order for a woman to become pregnant , she must release an egg from her ovary — ovulation. Next, the egg and sperm must meet and form a single cell — fertilization. Then pregnancy begins when and if the fertilized egg attaches to a woman's uterus and begins to grow — implantation.

contraceptive methods used by females

Barrier Methods
Female condoms-
These are thin, flexible plastic pouches. A portion of the condom is inserted into a woman's vagina before intercourse to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. The female condom also reduces the risk of STDs. Female condoms are disposed of after a single use.

Hormonal Methods

Combined oral contraceptives ("the pill")- Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) contain different combinations of the synthetic estrogens and progestins and are given to interfere with ovulation. A woman takes one pill daily, preferably at the same time each day. Many types of oral contraceptives are available, and a health care provider helps to determine which type best meets a woman's needs. Use of COC pills is not recommended for women who smoke tobacco and are more than 35 years old or for any woman who has high blood pressure, a history of blood clots, or a history of breast, liver, or endometrial cancer.

Intrauterine Methods

A hormonal IUD releases a progestin hormone into the uterus. The released hormone causes thickening of the cervical mucus, inhibits sperm from reaching or fertilizing the egg, thins the uterine lining, and also may prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs. Hormonal IUDs can be used for up to 5 years. Currently, Mirena, a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD, is the only FDA approved hormonal IUD that is available.

The spread of STDs

sexually transmitted diseases, commonly called STDs, are diseases that are spread by having sex with someone who has an STD. You can get a sexually transmitted disease from sexual activity that involves the mouth, anus, vagina, or penis.

Knowing about STDs and HIV/AIDS

HIV is spread when an HIV-infected person's body fluids (blood, semen, fluids from the vagina or breast milk) enter another person’s bloodstream.
Pregnant women with HIV can give the virus to their babies during pregnancy, child birth or through breast feeding. HIV can also be spread by sharing needles that are used for taking drugs (legal and illegal), tattooing, and piercing.
Both men and women can spread HIV. A person with HIV can feel okay and still give the virus to others.
Avoiding vaginal, oral or anal sex is the best way to prevent STDs.
Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in preventing the transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Tests are available to detect antibodies for HIV through physicians, STD clinics, and HIV counseling and testing sites.
Medications are available for HIV infected pregnant women to greatly reduce the chance of infection of newborn.

Common STDs in sexually active teenagers

Four STDs that are common in sexually active teens are: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis.

Risk factors leading to an STD or HIV infection

Having unprotected sex.
Having sexual contact with multiple partners.
Abusing alcohol or using recreational drugs.
Sharing needles, syringes, or equipment used to prepare or inject drugs with someone who is HIV infected.

Using needles for piercing or tattooing that are not sterile.

Eliminating the risk of contracting an STD or HIV/AIDS


Responsible Decisions

By making good decisions you can't contract an STD or HIV/AIDS.
No sexual intercourse.
No sharing needles.

Being Exposed

Get tested for and STD or HIV.
Talk to a parent or friend.
Talk to your doctor.

Protecting your health and other peoples health

Use abstinence to protect yourself.
Get your partner tested.
Make good decisions.
Talk to your partner.
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