Substance Abuse Project

By: Angels Garcia 7th period

Alcohol

Description and Use: An organic substance formed when a hydroxyl group is substituted for a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. The type of alcohol used in alcoholic beverages, ethanol, derives from fermenting sugar with yeast. After alcohol is ingested, the body converts it to sugar-based fuel. Alcohol acts as a central nervous system depressant, and it may be part of solutions used as preservatives, antiseptics, or medications.

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=20078


Desired Effects: To change mood, to relieve pressure or tension, to be sociable, to feel powerful, to feel less depressed, to feel brave, or to control painful memories of bad experiences.

http://casaa.unm.edu/inst/Desired%20Effects%20of%20Drinking.pdf


Effects to the Brain: Alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream via small blood vessels in the walls of the stomach and small intestine. Within minutes of drinking alcohol, it travels from the stomach to the brain, where it quickly produces its effects, slowing the action of nerve cells. Slows down vital functions. Results in slurred speech, unsteady movement, disturbed perceptions and an inability to react quickly.

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/alcohol/drinking-and-driving.html#understandinghowalcoholaffectsthebody


Other Effects: Approximately 20% of alcohol is absorbed through the stomach. Most of the remaining 80% is absorbed through the small intestine. The liver can only metabolize a certain amount at a time, leaving the excess circulating throughout the body. Thus the intensity of the effect on the body is directly related to the amount consumed. When the amount of alcohol in the blood exceeds a certain level, the breathing slows down markedly, and can cause a coma or death, because oxygen no longer reaches the brain.

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/alcohol/drinking-and-driving.html#understandinghowalcoholaffectsthebody


Form the Substance is Found In: Ethyl alcohol or ethanol (the only alcohol used in beverages) is produced by the fermentation of grains and fruits. Fermenting is a chemical process whereby yeast acts upon certain ingredients in the food, creating alcohol.

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/alcohol.html#alcoholcontent


Detoxification Programs:

1. Hospital- or medical-clinic-based programs: These programs offer both alcohol detox and alcohol rehab on an inpatient basis in specialized units.

2. Residential rehab programs: These programs can last from a month to more than a year and take place in a residential environment. Often, the treatment is divided into a series of stages that the person goes through.

3. Partial hospitalization or day treatment: These programs provide four to eight hours of treatment a day at a hospital or clinic to people who live at home. They typically run for three months and work best for people with a supportive family and a stable home environment.

4. Outpatient programs: These are run at hospitals, health clinics, community mental health clinics, counselor's offices, and residential facilities with outpatient clinics. Attendance requirements vary, and many of them are run in the evenings and on weekends to allow people to be able to continue working.

5. Intensive outpatient programs: These programs require nine to 20 hours of treatment per week and run for two months to one year. They work best for people who are motivated to participate and who have supportive families and friends.

http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/alcohol-detox-programs?page=2

Cannabis

Description: cannabis or tetrahydrocannabinol a depressant drug, which means it slows down messages travelling between your brain and body.

http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/cannabis

How it's Used: It takes about an hour to feel the effects of eating cannabis, which means it’s easy to have too much. If it’s smoked the effects are usually felt straight away. Can be used as a medication for


Cannabis is usually smoked or eaten and comes in 3 different forms:

Marijuana − the dried plant that is smoked in a joint or a bong. This is the most common form.

Hashish – the dried plant resin that is usually mixed with tobacco and smoked or added to foods and baked; such as cookies and brownies.

Hash oil – liquid that is usually added to the tip of a cigarette and smoked.

http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/cannabis


Effects to the Brain: Cannabis affects everyone differently, but effects may include: Feeling relaxed and sleepy, Spontaneous laughter and excitement, Increased appetite, Dry mouth, Quiet and reflective mood. Also, marijuana smokers have poorer memories and mental aptitude than do non-users.

http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/cannabis#fn2


Other Effects: If a large amount or a strong batch is taken, the following may also be experienced:

Trouble concentrating, Blurred vision, Clumsiness, Slower reflexes, Bloodshot eyes, Seeing and hearing things that aren't there, Increased heart rate, Low blood pressure, Mild anxiety, and paranoia.Smoking cannabis can also cause: Sore throat, asthma, bronchitis, and cancer if smoked with tobacco.

  • Marijuana changes the structure of sperm cells, deforming them.
  • Marijuana use can upset a woman’s menstrual cycle.
  • The active ingredient in cannabis, THC, remains in the body for weeks or longer.

http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/cannabis#fn2

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/marijuana/the-harmful-effects.html

Long-term Effects:

Regular use of cannabis may eventually cause:

Memory loss, learning difficulties, mood swings, regular colds or flu, reduced sex drive, difficulty having children (low fertility in males and females), needing to use more to get the same effect, and financial, work and social problems.

Short-term Effects: When a person smokes a joint, he usually feels its effect within minutes. The immediate sensations—increased heart rate, lessened coordination and balance, and a “dreamy,” unreal state of mind—peak within the first 30 minutes.

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/marijuana.html#howitisused


Form Substance is Found in:

1. Traditional hash: is made by shaking the flowers (buds), which then drops the resin glands onto silk screens.

2. Bubble Hash: An alternate method for creating hash involves extracting the resin glands in buckets of ice cold water. Marijuana is added to bubble bags, which are essentially silk screen bags. The mixture is agitated, and different types of bubble bags are used to refine the product.

3. Oil: is what is usually used in vape pens, such as the open vape.

4. Wax: is created by whipping hash oil during the purging process. It is sometimes referred to as earwax, due to its similar consistency.

5.Shatter: is a refined version of BHO, which typically involves multiple steps to extract all the plant matter and solvents.

https://www.coloradopotguide.com/colorado-marijuana-blog/2014/february/06/different-types-of-marijuana-concentrates-available-in-colorado/


Detoxification Programs:

1. Extensive Inpatient Rehabilitation Center: are made for those working in executive positions for whom leaving work for extended periods of time is not possible. Addiction treatments are paired with the ability to use a computer or mobile device.

2. Outpatient Drug Rehabilitation Programs: allow you to continue living at home while being treated:

  • Intensive outpatient programs: are not live-in treatment programs. But they still require a major time commitment. They are usually scheduled around work or school, meeting at least 3 days a week for 2-4 hours or more.They focus on relapse prevention and involve many of the components of inpatient programs including medication and various forms of therapy.
  • Partial hospitalization: is for people who require ongoing medical monitoring but have a stable living situation. These treatments meet at the hospital for 3-5 days a week for 4-6 hours, and in that time allow access to full hospital services and facilities for regular health maintenance as well as psychiatric care.
  • Counseling and therapy are often combined: with other treatments or as follow-up support after inpatient rehabilitation. These can include self-help programs like narcotics anonymous or marijuana anonymous that follow a 12-step model, as well as behavioral therapy, group or individual therapy and family counseling.

http://www.recovery.org/topics/marijuana-recovery/

Cocaine

Description: Cocaine is benzoylmethyl ecgonine, a crystalline alkaloid from the coca plant. It acts as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, and anesthetic.

Cocaine is one of the most dangerous drugs known to man. Once a person begins taking the drug, it has proven almost impossible to become free of its grip physically and mentally.

  • Today, cocaine is a worldwide, multibillion-dollar enterprise.
  • Cocaine is one of the most dangerous drugs known to man.

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/cocaine.html

http://chemistry.about.com/od/drugs/a/cocainefacts.htm

How it's Used:

  • The powdered form of cocaine is either inhaled through the nose (snorted), where it is absorbed through the nasal tissue, or dissolved in water and injected into the bloodstream.
  • Crack is a form of cocaine can be smoked. The crystal is heated to produce vapors that are absorbed into the blood-stream through the lungs.

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cocaine


Desired Effects:

Cocaine is a strong central nervous stimulant that interferes with, and causes excess amounts of, dopamine in the brain. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to pleasure and movement, is primarily associated with the brain's reward system. Cocaine is especially addictive because it alters the brain's sense of reward and punishment.

http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/cocaine.asp

Effects of the Brain:

1. Short-term Effect: Cocaine causes a short-lived, intense high that is immediately followed by the opposite intense depression, edginess and a craving for more of the drug. People who use it often don’t eat or sleep properly. They can experience greatly increased heart rate, muscle spasms and convulsions. The drug can make people feel paranoid, angry, hostile and anxious even when they aren’t high. cocaine increases the risk that the user will experience a heart attack, stroke, seizure or breathing failure, any of which can result in sudden death.

2. Long-term Effect: Prolonged daily use causes sleep deprivation and loss of appetite. A person can become psychotic and begin to experience hallucinations.

  • Permanent damage to blood vessels of heart and brain
  • High blood pressure, leading to heart attacks, strokes, and death
  • Liver, kidney and lung damage
  • Destruction of tissues in nose if sniffed
  • Respiratory failure if smoked
  • Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected
  • Malnutrition, weight loss
  • Severe tooth decay
  • Auditory and tactile hallucinations
  • Sexual problems, reproductive damage and infertility

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/cocaine/effects-of-cocaine.html


Form Substance is Found in:

  • Crack
  • Powdered cocaine
  • Freebase cocaine(liquid)


Detoxification Programs:

Inpatient Rehab Center: You receive round-the-clock care and are removed from access to cocaine for the duration of your stay.

Outpatient treatment: varies by location, some are more intensive and occur daily, while others may be little more than drug education and counseling.

http://www.rehabs.com/about/cocaine-rehab/

Hallucinogen

Description: A hallucination is an illusion of seeing or hearing something that is not actually there.

How the Substance is Used: Effects of hallucinogens are highly variable and unreliable, producing different effects in different people at different times.

Desired effects: May make you see, hear, smell, taste or feel things that are not real. Hallucinogens often intensify the mood that a user is in at the time of consumption.
http://www.treatment4addiction.com/drugs/hallucinogens/

Affects to the Brain: Some hallucinogens also produce rapid, intense emotional swings. LSD, peyote, and psilocybin cause their effects by initially disrupting the interaction of nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin.1 Distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, the serotonin system is involved in the control of behavioral, perceptual, and regulatory systems, including mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception.

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/hallucinogens-lsd-peyote-psilocybin-pcp

Other Affects: Can raise body temperature and increase heart rate and blood pressure; and can cause profuse sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and tremors, slurred speech, dizziness and spontaneous movement of the eyes.


Form Substance is Found in:

  • LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide)
  • Peyote
  • Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
  • PCP (phencyclidine)

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/hallucinogens-lsd-peyote-psilocybin-pcp


Detoxification Programs:

  • Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP): This type of outpatient program offers group and individual services and assistance, and it does not rely on detoxification. Sessions are conducted in the mornings or afternoons and permits the user to carry on some day to day behaviors.
  • Outpatient Care: Outpatient programs are similar to IOPs but not as concentrated. It places fewer limits on the person but still implements both group and personal therapies.
  • Support groups: Support groups fill a valuable role in overcoming hallucinogen abuse. They provide responsibility and mindfulness as all of the members have been through comparable circumstances.
  • http://www.addictionhope.com/hallucinogens/treatment
  • Heroin

    Description: Heroin is made from the resin of poppy plants. Milky, sap-like opium is first removed from the pod of the poppy flower. This opium is refined to make morphine, then further refined into different forms of heroin.

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/heroin.html


    How Substance is Used: Heroin can be injected, smoked or sniffed.


    Desired Affect: First time it is used, the drug creates a sensation of being high. A person can feel extroverted, able to communicate easily with others and may experience a sensation of heightened sexual performance.

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/heroin/what-does-heroin-look-like.html


    How Substance Affects the brain: Upon entering the brain, enzymes convert heroin back into morphine. Once in morphine form, it quickly binds to opioid receptors in the brain. This binding action triggers sensations of pain relief and even euphoria. which are more intense than the sensations produced by the body’s own endorphins binding to these receptors. This is likely due to the fact that the levels of dopamine flooding the body when using heroin is much greater than the amount of dopamine naturally produced by the body for pain relief or pleasure.

    http://heroin.net/heroin-effects/heroin-effects-sub-page-1/heroin-effects-on-the-brain/


    Other Effects:

    • "Rush”
    • Slowed breathing
    • Clouded mental functioning
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Sedation; drowsiness
    • Hypothermia (body temperature lower than normal)
    • Coma or death (due to overdose)

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/heroin/the-destructive-effects-of-heroin.html


    Form Substance is Found in:

    • Brown Heroin
    • White Heroin
    • Black Tar Heroin

    http://www.talkingdrugs.org/the-many-faces-of-heroin


    Detoxification Programs:

  • Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP): This type of outpatient program offers group and individual services and assistance, and it does not rely on detoxification. Sessions are conducted in the mornings or afternoons and permits the user to carry on some day to day behaviors.
  • Outpatient Care: Outpatient programs are similar to IOPs but not as concentrated. It places fewer limits on the person but still implements both group and personal therapies.
  • Support groups: Support groups fill a valuable role in overcoming hallucinogen abuse. They provide responsibility and mindfulness as all of the members have been through comparable circumstances.
  • http://www.addictionhope.com/hallucinogens/treatment
  • Meth

    Description: Crystal meth is short for crystal methamphetamine. It is just one form of the drug methamphetamine, a white crystalline drug.

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/crystalmeth.html


    How Substance is Used:

    People take by snorting it (inhaling through the nose), smoking it or injecting it with a needle, some even take it orally.

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/crystalmeth.html


    Desired Effect: A rush is the initial response the abuser feels when smoking or injecting methamphetamine. During the rush, the abuser’s heartbeat races and metabolism, blood pressure and pulse soar.

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/crystalmeth/the-stages-of-the-meth-experience.html

    Affects on the Brain: Methamphetamine increases the amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine, leading to high levels of that chemical in the brain. Dopamine is involved in reward, motivation, the experience of pleasure, and motor function.

    http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/methamphetamine


    Other Effects:

    • Permanent damage to blood vessels of heart and brain, high blood pressure leading to heart attacks, strokes and death
    • Liver, kidney and lung damage
    • Destruction of tissues in nose if sniffed
    • Respiratory (breathing) problems if smoked
    • Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected
    • Malnutrition, weight loss
    • Severe tooth decay
    • Disorientation, apathy, confused exhaustion
    • Strong psychological dependence
    • Psychosis
    • Depression
    • Damage to the brain similar to Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and epilepsy

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/crystalmeth/the-deadly-effects-of-meth.html


    Forms the Substance is Found in:

    • Snorting
    • smoking


    Detoxification Programs:

  • Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP): This type of outpatient program offers group and individual services and assistance, and it does not rely on detoxification. Sessions are conducted in the mornings or afternoons and permits the user to carry on some day to day behaviors.
  • Outpatient Care: Outpatient programs are similar to IOPs but not as concentrated. It places fewer limits on the person but still implements both group and personal therapies.
  • Support groups: Support groups fill a valuable role in overcoming hallucinogen abuse. They provide responsibility and mindfulness as all of the members have been through comparable circumstances.
  • http://www.addictionhope.com/hallucinogens/treatment
  • Nicotine

    Description: Nicotine (niacin or nicotinic acid) is a chemical compound that is present in tobacco.

    http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Nicotine.aspx


    How is Substance Used: When tobacco is smoked, nicotine is absorbed through the wall lining of the small air sacs in the lungs. When sniffed or chewed, it is absorbed through the mucous membranes of the nose or mouth. Nicotine can also be absorbed through the skin.

    http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Nicotine.aspx


    Desired Effect: A high


    How it Affects the Brain: Once within the bloodstream, nicotine may circulate around the body until it reaches the brain. This can occur in as little as 7 seconds.

    Once in the brain, it binds to and activates receptors called the cholinergic receptors. These cholinergic receptors are also abundant in other areas of the body such as the muscles, heart, adrenal glands and other vital organs. Normally, these receptors are activated when they bind to a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine which is produced at nerve endings in the brain and in the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Stimulation of the receptors by acetylcholine is important in maintaining healthy respiration, heart function and muscle movement, as well as cognitive function.

    http://www.news-medical.net/health/Nicotine-Effects.aspx


    Form Substance is Found in:

    • Chew
    • Cigarettes
    • Dip
    • Dissolvable Tobacco
    • Hookah

    http://www.ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/hems/tobacco/tobacco_products.pdf


    Detoxification Programs:

  • Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP): This type of outpatient program offers group and individual services and assistance, and it does not rely on detoxification. Sessions are conducted in the mornings or afternoons and permits the user to carry on some day to day behaviors.
  • Outpatient Care: Outpatient programs are similar to IOPs but not as concentrated. It places fewer limits on the person but still implements both group and personal therapies.
  • Support groups: Support groups fill a valuable role in overcoming hallucinogen abuse. They provide responsibility and mindfulness as all of the members have been through comparable circumstances.
  • http://www.addictionhope.com/hallucinogens/treatment
  • Painkillers

    Description: Prescription painkillers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain.

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/painkillers/what-are-painkillers.html


    How is the Substance Used: For pain relief


    Desired Effects: pain relief, a high


    Affects to the Brain: Painkillers work by blocking the brain’s perception of pain by binding to opiate receptors. This interferes with the signals transmitted by the central nervous system to the brain.

    http://www.marylandaddictionrecovery.com/effects-of-painkiller-on-the-brain-and-body


    Other Effects:

    • Constipation
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Dizziness
    • Confusion
    • Addiction
    • Unconsciousness
    • Respiratory depression
    • Increased risk of heart attack
    • Coma
    • Death

    http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/painkillers/oxycontin-the-hillbilly-heroin.html


    Forms Substance I Found in:

    Weak Opioids: These include, codeine and dihydrocodeine

    Strong Opioids: These include tramadol, buprenorphine, methadone, diamorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, and pethidine.

    http://patient.info/health/strong-painkillers-opioids


    Detoxification Programs:

  • Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP): This type of outpatient program offers group and individual services and assistance, and it does not rely on detoxification. Sessions are conducted in the mornings or afternoons and permits the user to carry on some day to day behaviors.
  • Outpatient Care: Outpatient programs are similar to IOPs but not as concentrated. It places fewer limits on the person but still implements both group and personal therapies.
  • Support groups: Support groups fill a valuable role in overcoming hallucinogen abuse. They provide responsibility and mindfulness as all of the members have been through comparable circumstances.
  • http://www.addictionhope.com/hallucinogens/treatment