Civilization Time Line
The Akkadians: 2340-2125 B.C.
The Amorites: 1800-1530 B.C.
The Hitites:1600-717 B.C.
The Kassites: 1530-1170 B.C.
Requirements of a Civilization
Importance of Hammurabi Law
Hammurabi laws were some of the first laws written and it helped keep the people civilized and organized.
5 Hammurabi Laws
1. If a "sister of a god" open's a tavern, or enter's a tavern to drink, then this woman shall be burned to death.
2. If any one steal's the minor son of another, he shall be put to death.
3. If a son strike's his father, his hands shall be hewn off.
4. If any one open's his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water flood's the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor corn for his loss.
5. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.
Gilgamesh was the ruler of the city of Uruk, hundreds of years after his death people told tales about him. The stories changed over the years.
One story was the epic of Gilgamesh where he and his friend Enkidu went to kill the monster Humbaba, the keeper of a distant forest. He held many powers one of which was fire. Gilgamesh wanted these powers for himself. After a long battle they captured Humbaba. He begged them not to kill him, but they did anyway. The air God Enlil was angry with Gilgamesh for doing this. He didnt give the powers to Gilgamesh instead he gave them to other creatures and elements of nature.
Farming and Agriculture
The Farmers of Mesopotamia found that because of the rivers, they had an endless supply of water to irrigate the land. This helped the crops to grow. They grew wheat, barley, dates, cucumbers, onions, apples and many spices. They also raised many animals like cows, goats and sheep.
The farmers had plenty of water for irrigation but what they soon found out was that if the water was left in the irrigation ditches and on the fields too long it would leave mineral salt deposits. This eventually killed the crops and poisoned the land. This caused the civilization to collapse.
The people of Mesopotamia usually ate twice a day. Due to the high price of meat, most had Fish, Bread and vegetable stews. They enjoyed lots of fruits like apples, grapes, pears, plums and melons. They also drank lots of beer and sometimes milk. Occasionally they would make cakes.
Living Close to Water
Most people chose to live close to water because the water is a source of food and transportation. It also provides water for drinking, cleaning and irrigation for crops. The water made the land fertile and the crops healthy.
1. Flood the dry fields. This softens the soil so you can get it ready to plant.
2 .Plow the fields. This breaks up the dirt.
3. Harrow the field. This breaks up the large chunks and makes the field smooth.
4. Sow your seeds.
5. Water your fields. This must be done three times.
6. Harvest the crop. You do this when your crop is grown. The farmers cut the crop and remove it from the field and store it.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
This was a man made mountain with many levels. It was covered from top to bottom with trees of all sizes and beautiful gardens.
They were built by King Nebuchadnezzar to try and cheer up his wife who was from a land of green mountains. She was homesick in this new land that was mostly flat.
The Archimedean screw
Invented by the Sumerians. It is a system of writing.
Classes of People in Mesopotamia
Tall Temples. The people believed that the gods were up high in the sky and they built them to be closer to the gods. They held religious ceremony's on top of them. It was normally built in the center of the town.