The Second New Deal

Brandon Young and Nick Guido

Sit-down Strikes Help Workers Get Their Way

Sit-down strikes first occurred in Flint, Michigan, at the General Motors plant. General Motors wouldn't let the workers form a union. The workers reacted by having sit-down strikes. For 44 days the workers would come to the plant but would not work at all there. They did this until the company let them form a union. The sit-down strikes were quite successful in getting the workers what they wanted.

The John Lewis Wagner Act

The John Lewis Wagner Act was made in 1935. It was part of the New Deal It's real name is the National Labor Relations Act. It got the name the Wagner Act because its sponsor was Senator Robert Wagner of New York. This act guaranteed workers the right to form unions and to bargain collectively with the company. This act also made the National Relations Board which enforced the act.

The Fair Labor Standards Act

The Fair Labor Standards Act was also part of the New Deal. It was passed by Congress in 1938. It was known as the FLSA, for short. It banned child labor in factories and other ways. It also made a minimum wage of 40 cents per hour. The FLSA and the Wagner Act set the standards for workers rights in America today.

The Revenue Act

President Roosevelt strongly supported the Revenue Act. He was the person who pushed to get it passed by Congress in 1935. The plan was to bring in more money for the government. The act raised taxes on wealthy people and businesses. Some people said he was "soaking the rich" to pay for his programs and ideas, but many Americans supported the Revenue Act.

The Works Progress Administration

In the 1930's there were still millions of Americans that were unemployed. In 1935, Congress made the Works Progress Administration, a.k.a. the WPA. The WPA was led by a man by the name of Harry Hopkins. The WPA was a big success. It hired millions of people to help build things such as schools or bridges that would be beneficial to the public. In addition to that, there was also the Federal Writers Project. It gave a job to people who had the talent to write but couldn't find a job. They also recorded stories of people from different regions, jobs, races, and even former slaves. In fact, many of the people that were in the Federal Writers Project became famous. They

New Deal Opponents

Coughlin- Charles Coughlin was one of FDR's biggest critics. Coughlin was a priest from Detroit and he had millions of listeners on his weekly radio program. Believe it or not, he was a FDR supporter not to long before his hatred set in. He despised FDR because he thinks he wasn't treated fairly by big business. On his show he talked very harshly and firmly about his beliefs. He soon lost his support due to his harsh comments.


Townsend- Francis Townsend was a doctor from California. He gained attention because of his idea about a monthly pension. Most people agreed with it because it helped both the old and the young out. The old would get money without working and the young would get money for working and will have many jobs available. However, it didn't get much support from Congress. Due to Townsend's idea, many people went against FDR and didn't like his ideas.


Long- Huey Long was a Senator from Louisiana. He used to be the governor of Louisiana and because of his power, his ideas were widely heard. He was against big business as well. He also supported FDR just like Coughlin. His biggest complaint was that FDR ideas weren't helping the wealth of the people in the United States at the time. Long then made the "Share Our Wealth Plan." This planned taxed the wealthy a lot. Then with that money it would help out all Americans. He was soon a problem for FDR. He claimed many votes; however, he was soon assassinated in 1935.

Pension

The pension was created by Francis Townsend. The idea was that old people would get paid for giving up their job to younger workers. Most citizens totally agreed with this idea because it helped both people out. The old would get paid without even working and the young would always have jobs available. The only people who didn't agree were congress. Congress didn't agree because it went against everything that FDR stood for.

The Packing of Supreme Court

FDR was reelected. The Packing of the Supreme Court plan was so that the court wouldn't undo the New Deal. FDR asked congress to increase the amount of supreme court justices from 9 to 15. FDR got to choose the new justices; therefore, he would just go choose justices that would approve the New Deal. People caught onto FDR's plan and accused him for 'packing' the court. It came out to be that he wasn't allowed to pick the justices. Not only that, he lost tons of supporters.

Roosevelt's Recession

In the summer of 1937, the Depression was almost over. Right when they thought the depression had ended, millions of people lost their jobs. The reason why they lost their jobs was because FDR had to stop funding their business. After we just finished the depression ran right into another brick wall. This time, it was called the Roosevelt Recession.

The Social Security Act

The Social Security Act was passed in August of 1935. It put a tax on employees and workers. This money gave retired people a monthly pension. There was also another tax on only employers. It funded unemployment insurance to pay people who lost their job. The Social Security Act also helped people with disabilities, children whose parents could not support them, and poor elderly people. This act also caused the government to take responsibility for the welfare of all the citizens and they also started the American welfare system.

The End of the New Deal

Roosevelt was largely involved in the Court-Packing Plan and caused the Roosevelt Recession. This caused him to lose support in Congress. He had not brought the economy back up even with the New Deal’s. Near the end of the 1930’s, people were not so much focused on domestic affairs. They were focused on the building up of powerful nations in Europe and Asia that could be dangerous.

Opponents of the New Deal