CELLS

By Anuj Thakkar

The Cell

The Cell, wow such a little thing that we don't even think about. Yet the cell is the basic unit of life that we couldn't even survive without. Now this little critter is not the smallest of them all, they are made of parts called organelles. Each organelle has different duties for the cell.

Organelles

The Nucleus

The Nucleus is the leader of them all. The Nucleus directs all the organelles and tells each one to do. The reason why it can do this is because it stores the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or the genetic structure for every cell. The Nucleus is in both plant and animal cells.

The Mitochondria

The Mighty Mitochondria, and they call it this mighty name because without the Mitochondria we would all be energy less. The Mitochondria makes all of the cells energy. By taking all of the energy already created (when you eat) and converts it to ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and then releases the energy so the organism can use it. This is found in both plant and animals.

The Vacuole

The Vacuole it our great storage unit. This organelle is one of the most important organelle there is because it stores all kinds of things we need. From water for plants to nutrients for both, The Vacuole stores even waste. We would be in big trouble if we didn't have this guy around because if our body needs a certain protein or plant needs more water, then thats the guy we go to.

The Chloroplast

The Chloroplast is the main food making system in the plant cell. By converting all of the energy ray's emitted by the sun, this genius converts it to glucose (sugar). This is the substance that is transformed to ATP by the mitochondria. This organelle is also why the plant has a green color because when the sun's rays is absorbed the chlorophyl reflects the green color.

The Golgi Apparatus

The Golgi Apparatus is the cells great packing system. This organelle groups nutrients that come into the cell for a later time. It ships these packets of nutrients or what the part of the cell needs at that time, to different areas. This cells part is in both plants and in animals.

The Cytoplasm

The Cytoplasm is the gooey inside of a cell. This cytoplasm keeps everything inside the cell at all times. The cytoplasm is like a thick jell. Also the Cytoplasm keeps the pressure steady in the cell, making sure they don't shrink or expand. This organelle has a very important role of structuring our cell.

The Ribosomes

The Ribosomes are the little small manufacturing factories within a gigantic factory. This organelle makes some nutrients for the cell. Also it helps support the Nucleus in time of need. They are found both in the animal and plant cells.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

The ER are the gigantic nutrient factory of the town. This is the organelle that makes almost all of the nutrients for the cell and more. This organelle is like the great supplier for the cell. The ER is one of the most important organelle in the cell because without it we would not have enough nutrients to survive.

The Cell Membrane

The Cell Membrane might have the most important role in protecting the cell. This organelle determines what goes into the cell and what goes out. In the animal cells it lets substances like oxygen and water and food and lets out substances like carbon dioxide and more. In the plant it lets in more carbon dioxide and water while taking out oxygen and other substances.

The Cell Wall

The Cell Wall is the most important organelle in keeping the plant's cell structure in tact. This organelle is the outer wall that protects the cell and keeps the cell in tact. The reason that the plant cell is so squarish and defined is because of the Cell Wall.
A Tour of the Cell
Cells Cells - Parts of the Cell Rap

The Cell Theory

The Cell Theory

The Cell Theory is the theory that describes properties of cells. There are 3 parts of the Cell Theory:

•All organisms are composed of one or more cells

•Cells are the basic Unit of structure and organization in organisms

•All cells come from preexisting cells

The wacky history of cell theory - Lauren Royal-Woods

The Two Types of Cells

Eukaryote

Eukaryote cells are cells that do indeed have a nucleus which of course enables them to have DNA and Ribosomes, as do all cells. Besides the difference of having a nucleus, Eukaryote Cells also have cell bound organelles. Some organisms with Eukaryote cells are Animal, Plant, Fungi, etc.

Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes cells are cells that do not indeed have a nucleus, but still has the necessary DNA and Ribosomes that all organisms should have. They also do not have cell membrane bound organelles as Eukaryotes do. Due to the fact that they do not have a nucleus, antibiotics work on theses types of cells. Some organisms with Prokaryote cells are Bacteria, Archaea, etc.
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration

How do animals get their energy? Well it all happens in the cell. The process of releasing energy is called Cellular Respiration. This occurs in individual cells and when ever a animal or human eats thats when the process starts. All food has chemical energy which is "burned" by the oxygen in the cells. Cells use the energy that was created, which is called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is created in the organelle called Mitochondria. Here is the equation for Cellular Respiraton
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Photosynthesis

How do plants get their energy? Well it all happens in the cell. The process by which plants get their energy is called Photosynthesis. Plants have organelles called chloroplast that absorb the sun's rays. With the help of water and nutrients the create a sugar called Glucose as their food. Here is the equation for Photosythesis.
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Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria

The Order of Cells

The Order of Cells

The organism has different layers and each layer has a different size and a different shape. Cell --> Tissue --> Organs --> Organ System --> Organism

The Cell

The Cell, the smallest of the group is the basic unit of life and life cannot be carried out without cells.

The Tissue

The Tissue is a group of cells that form kind of another layer, but not so much as a organ.

The Organ

The Organ is a group of tissue that have grouped together that have developed a way to preform a duty or an action.

The Organ System

The Organ System is a group of organs that have grouped together to preform a function for the body like breathing, pumping blood, etc.

The Organism

The Organism is a group of organ systems that are all working together to preform functions in order for the Organism to survive.
Cell Tissue Organ System Organism - BBC Curriculum Bites