The Modern Era

By: Shelby Brunner

1850 to 1864- Taiping Uprising

The Taiping Rebellion or Taiping Civil War was a rebellion or civil war in China. Which was fought between the establishing of Manchu led Qing Dynasty and the Christian millenarian. Which was a movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. It all started when a Christian sect known as the God Worshiping Society led by Hong Xiuquan, who believed himself to be the younger brother of Jesus Christ. After war Qing had Victory. Diminished power of the central court over the provinces and rise of irregular provincial armies.

Opium Wars

The Opium wars were two wars in the mid 19th century. Which involved Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China. The First Opium War was in 1839 to 1842 and the second opium war was from 1856 to 1860. The wars weakened the Qing dynasty and reduced China's separation from the rest of the world.
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Unequal treaties

An Unequal treaty is any of a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China and late Tokugawa Japan. Suffered military defeat by the foreign powers or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.

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Self-strengthening movement- 1861 to 1895

The Self-strengthening movement was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty. Following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers.
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Boxer Uprising- 1900

The Boxer Rebellion (or the Boxer Uprising), a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.

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Commissioner Lin- 30 August 1785 to 22 November 1850

Courtesy name Yuanfu, was a Chinese Scholor and official of the Qing dynasty, hailing from Fuzhou, Fujian province. He is praised for his constant position on the "moral high ground" in his fight, but he is also blamed for a rigid approach which failed to account for the domestic and international complexities of the problem.

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Chinese Revolution of 1911

    In October of 1911, a group of revolutionaries in southern China led a successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty, establishing in its place the Republic of China and ending the imperial system.

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"The sick man of Europe" -1853


The label of "sick man of Europe" is given to a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverishment. The term was first used in the mid-19th century to describe the Ottoman Empire , but has since been applied at one time or another to nearly every other major country in Europe.

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Tanzimat- 1839 to 1876

    The tanzimat were a series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire that brought the culture, education, religion and society more in line with Europe and the United States and western ways.The Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements from within and aggressive powers from outside of the state.

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Young Ottomans

The Young Ottomans were a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Ottomans Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman empires, which they believed did not go far enough. Young Ottomans sought to transform Ottoman society by preserving the empire and modernizing along the European tradition of adopting a constitutional government.
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Sultan Abd al-Hamid ll

Abdul Hamid II was the 34th Sultan of the Ottomans empire and the last Sultan to exert effective autocratic control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a Period of decline in the power and extent of the Ottoman Empire, including widespread pogromS, Bulgarians, as well as an assassination attempt, ruling from 31 August 1876 until he was deposed shortly after the 1908 Young Turk revolution, on 27 April 1909.
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Young Turks

The Young Turks were the perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide. The Young Turk Movement emerged in reaction to the absolutist rule of Sultan Abdul-Hamid (Abdulhamit) II (1876-1909). With the 1878 suspension of the Ottoman Constitution, reform-minded Ottomans resorted to organizing overseas or underground. The backbone of the movement was formed by young military officers who were especially disturbed by the continuing decline of Ottoman power and attributed the crisis to the absence of an environment for change and progress.
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Informal empires

Informal Empire describes the spheres of influence which an empire may develop that translate into a degree of influence over a region or country, which is not a formal colony in the empire, as a result of the extension of commercial, strategic or military interests of the empire.
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Tokugawa Japan

was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1867. The heads of government were the shoguns, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan.
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Meiji restoration

also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a Chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji Although there were Emperors before Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan
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Russo-Japanese War- 1904 to 1905

was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the liaodong Peninsula in Southern Manchuria, and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
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